A Review on Fuel Cell as Advanced Power Source


S. K. Kamarudin(1*), W.R. W. Daud(2), M. S. Ayub(3), A. W. Mohammad(4), S. E. lyuke(5)

(1) Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
(2) Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
(3) Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
(4) Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
(5) Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang , Selangor, Malaysia.
(*) Corresponding Author


Fuel cells are making headlines across the globe in almost all arenas of power production. While the technology for these electrochemical power plants was invented around 1839 and has been in use for nearly 150 years, it is only recently that fuel cells have gained popular recognition and reckoned for serious consideration as a power zone for the future. Despite their relatively new arrival on the popular scene, fuel cells have already found their way into pre-commercial testing in domestic, commercial, industrial and mobile applications. Fuel cells convert chemical energy of a fuel gas directly into electrical work, and are efficient and environmentally clean, since no combustion is involved. Fuel cells are presently under development for a variety of generation application in response to the critical need for a cleaner energy technology. The use of fuel cell systems has been strongly promoted in Japan and the United States for medium-scale co-generation plants. Nowadays, this interest has been extended to the smaller scale, in particular at the residential area level. All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in electric vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. At the same time, increased interest has arisen for the application of fuel cell systems to automotive propulsion, although there is no clear option on the direct use of hydrogen stored on board or the installation of hydrogen plant on board as of this time. This paper outlines the acute global population growth and the growing need and use of energy and its component as well as its environmental impact. In particular, this paper reviews the existing or emerging fuel cells technologies, limitations, and their benefits in connection with energy, environment and sustainable development relationship. In addition, this paper also explores fuel sources and the various types of fuel cells as well as their applications.

Full Text:



  1. Ahman, M. 2001. Primary Energy Efficiencyof AlternativePower Trainsin Vehicles2001 Journal of PowerSources.26: 973-989.
  2. Ahn, S.Y, Shin, S.J. Ha, H.Y Hong, S.A, Lee, YC., Lim, T.W.and Oh, I.H. 2002. Performance and Lifetime Analysis of the kW-class PEMFC Stack. Journal of Power Sources 106(1-2): 295-303.
  3. Ando, Y, Tanaka, T., Doi, T., and Takashima, T. 2001. A Study on a Thermally Regenerative FuelCellutilizingLowTemperatureThermal Energy.Energy ConversionManagement. 42(15-17): 1807-1816.
  4. Asmus, P. 2001. The War against Terrorism Helps Buildthe Case for DistributedRenewables. The ElectricityJournal. 14(10): 75-80.
  5. Badescu,V.2002. Modelof aSpaceHeatingSystem Integrating a Heat Pump, Photothermal Collectors and Solar Cells. Renewable Energy 27(4): 489-505.
  6. Bak, T., Nowonty,J, Rekas,M. and Sorrel, C.C. 2002. Photo-electrochemical Hydrogen Generation fromWaterusingSolar energy- material related aspects. International Journal of HydrogenEnergy. 27(10): 319- 336.
  7. Bansal, RC., Bhatti,T.S. and Kothri,D.P. 2002. On Some of the Design Aspects of Wind Energy Conversion Systems. Energy ConversionandManagement45(16): 2175- 2187.
  8. Beck, F. and Ruetschi, P. 2000. Rechargeable Batteries with Aqueous Electrolytes. Electrochimica Acta. 45(15-16): 2467- 2482.
  9. Bird, C.E.B. 1996. Fuel Cell Commercialization Issues for Light Duty Vehicle Applications. Journal of PowerSources.61: 33-48.
  10. Brujin F.A,Papageorgopoulos, D.C., SittersE.F.and Janssen. G.J.M. 2002. The Influence of Carbon Dioxide on PEM Fuel CellsAnodes. Journal of Power Sources. 11 O(1): 117-124
  11. Chu, D., Jiang, R 1999. ComparativeStudies of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Stack and Single Cell. Journal of Power Sources.80: 226-234.
  12. Chu,D.,Jiang,R, Gardner,K.,Jacobs,Schmidt, Quakenbush,T. and Stephens,J. 2001. PEMFCsfor Communication Application. Journal of Power Sources. 96: 174-178.
  13. Conte,M.Iacobazzi,A Ronchetti,M. and Vellone, R. 2001. Hydrogen Economy for a Sustainable Development: state-of-the-art and TechnologicalPerspectives.Journalof Power Sources. 100: 171-187.
  14. Cunha, J. and Azevedo, J.L.T. 2000. Modeling the Integration of a Compact Plate Steam Reformerin a FuelCellSystem.Journal of PowerSources.86: 515-522.
  15. Datta,B.K.,Velayutham,G. and Goud, AP. 2002. Fuel Cell Power Source for Cold Region. 106: 370-376.
  16. Dorvlo, AS.S. and Ampratwun, D.B. 2002. Wind EnergyPotentialforOman26(3): 333-338.
  17. Doss, E.D, Kumar, R., Ahluwalia, R.K. and Krumpelt, M. 2001. Fuel Processor for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems: A Parametric Analysis.Journal of Power Sources. 102: 1-15.
  18. Dufour, AU. 1998. Fuel cells- A New Contributor to Stationary Power. Journal of Power Sources71: 19-25.
  19. EI-Shatter, T.F., Eskandar, M.N. and EI-Hagry, M.T.2002. Hybrid PV/Fuel Cell System Design and Simulation. Renewable Energy. 27: 479-485.
  20. Escudero, M.J., Hontanion, E. Schwartz, S. Boutonnet, M. and Daza, L. 2002. Development and Performance Characterization of new electro-catalysts for PEMFC.Journal of PowerSources.106(1- 2): 202-214.
  21. Eskandar,M.N. 2002. Neural NetworkController for a PermanentMagnetGeneratorApplied in a Wind Energy Conversion System. Renewable Energy 26(3): 463-477.
  22. Francesco, M.D. And Arato, E. 2002. Start-up AnalysisForAutomotivePEMFCSystems. JournalofPowerSources.108(1-2): 41-52.
  23. Galy, J., Magill,J., Dam, H.V., and Valko,J. 2002. A Neuron Booster for Spalattion Sources- application to Accelerator-driven System and Isotopes. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics. .485(3): 739-752.
  24. Hall,J. and Kerr,R 2002. Innovation Dynamics and Environmental Technologies: The Emergence of FuelCellTechnology. Journal of Cleaner Production. Available online 10 May 2002.
  25. Han, J., Kim,I.S. and Choi, KS. 2000. Purifier- IntegratedMethanolReformerforFuelCell Vehicles.Journal of Power Sources. 86: 223-227.
  26. Hart, D., and Hormandinger, G. 1998. Environmental Benefits of Transport and Stationary Fuel Cells. Journal of Power Sources. 71: 34Eh353.
  27. Hassmann,Kand Ripple,R 1998.ANewApproach to FuelCellInvestmentSstrategy.Journalof PowerSources. 71: 75-79.
  28. Haynes, C. 2002. SimulatingProcessSettingsfor Unsaved SOFC Response to Increase in Load Demand. Journal of PowerSources. 109: 365-376
  29. Heizel,A, Hebling,C., Muller,M., Zedda, M. and Muller, C. 2002. Fuel Cells for Low Applications. Journal of Power Sources. 105(2) : 148-153.
  30. Hirsch,D.,Epstein,M.and Steinfeld,A 2001. The Solar Thermal Decarbonizationof Natural Gas. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 26(10): 1023-1033.
  31. Hohlein, 8., Boe, M., Hansen, J.B., Brockerhoff, P.,Colsman, G. Emonts,B., Menzer,Rand Riedel,E. 1996. Hydrogen fromMethanol for Fuel Cells in Mobile Systems: Development of a Compact Reformer. Journal of PowerSources. 61: 143-147.
  32. Hojo,N.,Okuda,M.and Nakamura,M,1996. PAFCs inJapan. JournalofPowerSources.61: 73- 77.
  33. (http :www. nfcrc. uci. edu/j ournal/article/ fcarticle.index.htm).
  34. Jiang, Rand Chu, Deryn. 2001. Voltage-Time Behaviorofa PolymerElectrolyteMembrane Fuel Cell Stack at Constant Current Discharge.Journal of PowerSources. 92: 193-198.
  35. Karyakin, A.A., Morozov,S.V., Karyakina, E.E. Varfolomeyev,S.D. and Cosnier,S. 2002. Hydrogen Fuel Electrode Based on Bioelectrocatalysis by the Enzyme Hydrogenises. Electrochemistry Communication.4(5): 417-420.
  36. Kasahara,K, Morioka,M.,Yoshida,H.and Shingai, H. 2000. PAFCOperating Performance Verified by Japanese Gas Utilities. Journal of Power Sources. 86: 298-301.
  37. Kazim, A. 2002. A Novel Approach on the Determination of the Minimal Operating Efficiencyof PEMFC.Renewable Energy. 26: 479-488
  38. Lambertin,D., Lacquement,J. , Sanchez, S. and Picard,G. 2002. DeterminationofSolubility Productof Plutonium Sesquioxide in the NaCI+CaC~ Eutecticand Calculationof a Potential-p02- 0 i a g ram. EIectroc he"mistry Communication 4(5): 447-450.
  39. Lamy, C., Lima, A., Lerhun, V., Delime, E, Countance, C and leger,J.M. 2002. Recent Advances in the Development of Direct Alcohol FuelCells(DAFC). Journal of Power Sources. 105: 283-296.
  40. Lee, H.I., Lee, C.H., Oh, T.Y, Choi" S.G., Park, I.W. and Baek, K,K2002. Development Of 1kW Class Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Power Generation System. Journal of PowerSources.107(1): 110-119.
  41. Lee, J., Lee, S., Cho, S., Kim, S., Park, I.Y and Choi, YD. 2002. Role of
  42. Li, M.and Wang,RZ. 2002. A Study of Effectof a Collector and Environment Parameter on the Performance of a Solar Power Solid AdsorptionRefrigerator.RenewableEnergy 27(3): 369-382.
  43. Un, B. 2000. Conceptual Design and Modeling of a Fuel Cell Scooter for Urban Asia. Journal of Power Sources. 86: 202-213.
  44. Lior, N. 2001. Power from Space. Energy Conversion Management. 42(15-17): 1769- 1805.
  45. Liu, W.Q., Gan, L. and Zhang X.L. 2002. Cost- Competitive Incentive for Wind Energy Development in China: Institutional Dynamics and PolicyChanges. Energy Policy.30(9): 753-765
  46. Manwell,J.F, Rogers, AL, McGrowan, J.G. and Bailey, B.H. 2002. An Offshore Wind Resources Assessment Study for New England. RenewableEnergy27(2): 175- 187.
  47. McKerron,G. 2000. FinancialConsiderationsof ExploitingFuelCellTechnologyJournalof Power Sources. 86 : 28-33.
  48. Meyendorf, N.G.H., Rosner, H., Kramb, V., and Satish, S. 2002. Thermo-AcousticFatigue Characterization.Ultrasonic.40(1-8):427- 434.
  49. Meyers, J.P. and Maynard, H.L. 2002. Design Cells. 2002. Journal of Power Sources. 1- 14.
  50. Ohnishi,T. 2002.AMulti-particleModelApplicable to Social Issues: Time -Evaluation of Japanese Public Opinion on Nuclear Energy. Annals of Nuclear Energy. 29(15): 1747- 1764.
  51. On, LB, Kirchain,R. and Roth,R.2002. Technical CostAnalysisforPEMFCs.JournalofPower Sources.4759: 1-5.
  52. Palo, D.R., Holladay, J.D., Rozimiarek,R. T.,Leong, C.E.G., Wang, J. Hu, J., Chin, YH., Dagle, R.A and Baker, E. G. 2002 Development of a Soldier-potable Fuel CellPower System. Journal of PowerSources.108: 28-34.
  53. Panik, F.1998. Fuel Cellsfor Vehicle Application in Cars-bringing the Future Closer. Journal of PowerSources.71: 36-38.
  54. Qi, Z., He, C. And Kaufman,A 2002.EffectOfCO in the Anode FuelOn the PerformanceOf PEMFuelCell Cathode. Journal of Power Sources. In Press, Uncorrected Proof AvailableonlineJun 2002.
  55. Sammes,N.Mand Boersma,R. 2000.Small Scale Fuel Cells for Residential Applications. Journal of PowerSources.86: 98-110.
  56. Sebastian, P.J., Martinez, M., Eapen,D., Solorza, O. and Savadogo.1996. Hydrogen Energy and FuelCells:A Recent R&D Program in Mexico.InternationalJournal of Hydrogen Energy. 21(7): 613-616.
  57. Shim, J.C. and Lee, J.S. 2000. Development of Electrode Structure and Analysis of Electrode Pore Distributions in PAFCs. Material Chemistry and Physics63: 133- 138.
  58. Snook, S.L. 2000. Head and Volume Enhanced for High Head Hydroelectric System via Electric (DC) Generation and CH4 Thermal Decomposition with Assistance From Solar Pipe. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 25(3): 235-237.
  59. Stambouli, AB. and Traversa, E. 2002. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: A Review of an Environmentally Clean and Efficient Source of Energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. Availableonline2 April2002.
  60. Stone, C and Morrison,AE. 2002. FromCuriosity to " PowertoChangetheWorld".SolidState Ionics8446.
  61. Strobel, R., Osdcipok, M., Fasil, M.Rohland, B. Jorissen,L and Garche, J. 2002. The Compression of Hydrogen in an ElectrochemicalCellBasedon a PEFuelCell Design.Journalof PowerSources.105: 208-215.
  62. Tiba,C., Fraidenraich,N. Gallegos,H.G. and Lyra, EJ.M. 2002. Solar Energy Resource Assessment-Brazil. RenewableEnergy. 27(3): 383-400.
  63. Tributsch,H. 1997. Challenge for (photo) Electro CatalysisResearch.CatalysisToday.39(3): 177-186.
  64. Vanhanem, J.P., Kauranen, P.S., and Lund, P.O. 1998. Operation Experience of PAFCin a Solar Hydrogen Energy System. InternationalJournal of HydrogenEnergy. 22(7): 707-713.
  65. Watanabe, Y, Matsumoto, M., and Takasu, K. 1996. The Market for UtilityScale Fuel Cell Plants. Journal of PowerSources.61: 53-59.
  66. Weiner, S.A. 1998. Fuel Cell Stationary Power BusinessDevelopment. Journal of Power Sources.71: 61-64.
  67. Winkler, W. and Lorenz. 2002. Design Studies of MobileApplication with SOFC-heat Engines Modules.Journalof PowerSources.106(1- 2): 338-343.
  68. World Energy Council. 1998. Survey of Energy Resources.
  69. Zhu, B. and Lindbergh,G. 2001. Corrosion Behavior of High-chromiumFerriticSteels in MC in Cathode Environment. Electrochemical Acta 46: 2593-2604.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ajche.50806

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 3766 | views : 2088


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ASEAN Journal of Chemical Engineering  (print ISSN 1655-4418; online ISSN 2655-5409) is published by Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada.