The Effect of Niobium Addition on Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Resistance of a Medical Grade SS316L

https://doi.org/10.22146/ajche.63778

I Nyoman Jujur(1*), Sri Endah Susilowati(2), Seto Roseno(3), Agus Hadi Santosa Wargadipura(4)

(1) Center of Technology for Materials, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), Indonesia
(2) Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 17 Agustus 1945 University
(3) Center of Technology for Materials, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), Indonesia
(4) Center of Technology for Materials, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


To improve mechanical properties, especially elongation, of as-cast medical grade 316L stainless steel, niobium (Nb) was introduced into the alloys, followed by solution heat treatment. Alloying was performed using a 250 kg air induction melting furnace with duplex raw materials and ferronickel. Heat treatment using a solution at 1040 oC, with a holding time of 45 minutes, and water quenching was used. The sample was tested using hardness and ultimate tensile machines. Corrosion tests with simulated body fluids were carried out using media with similar corrosion conditions to human blood. Microstructure observations were performed optically. The results show that the addition of Nb increases the hardness of medical grade 316L stainless steel by 6% compared to the unalloyed steel, both before and after heat treatment. The addition of Nb increases the tensile strength by 8% compared to non-heat treated steel and increases the elongation before and after heat treatment by 8% and 5%, respectively. However, the corrosion rate of the material with Nb is higher than without the addition of Nb. Nb as a carbide former improves the mechanical properties of medical grade 316L stainless steel but adversely affects its corrosion resistance

Keywords


Nb addition; Medical grade SS 316L; Microstructure observation; Mechanical properties; Body fluid simulation

Full Text:

PDF


References

  1. Al-Sanabani, J. S., Madfa, A. A., & Al-Sanabani, F. A. (2013). “Application of calcium phosphate materials in dentistry,” Int. J. Biomater. 1-13
  2. Ayer, R., Klein, C. F., & Marzinsky, C. N. (1992). “Instabilities in stabilized austenitic stainless steels,” Metall. Trans. A, 23(9), 2455-2467.
  3. Baharuddin, M. Y., Salleh, S. H., Suhasril, A. A., Zulkifly, A. H., Lee, M. H., Omar, M. A., ... & Abdul Majid, N. (2014). “Fabrication of low‐cost, cementless femoral stem 316 L stainless steel using investment casting technique,” Artif. Organs, 38(7), 603-608.
  4. Balla, V. K., Das, M., Bose, S., Ram, G. J., & Manna, I. (2013). “Laser surface modification of 316 L stainless steel with bioactive hydroxyapatite,” Mat. Sci. Eng. C, 33(8), 4594-4598.
  5. Chylińska, R., Garbiak, P. C., & Piekarski, B. (2011). “Analysis of precipitation processes in austenitic cast steel with niobium,” Chem. Listy, 105(17), 806-807.
  6. Dang, N. N., Kim, J. G., Huu, T. P., & Yoon, D. H. (2008). “Corrosion properties of RN-magnetron sputtered tin coating deposited on 316L stainless steel,” Abstract of the Korean Society of Surface Engineers Conference, 484-484.
  7. Du, B., Zou, Z., Wang, X., & Li, Q. (2007). “In situ synthesis of Tic–Tib 2 reinforced FeCrSiB composite coating by laser cladding,” Surf. Rev. Lett., 14(02), 315-319.
  8. Dutta, B., & Sellars, C. M. (1986). “Strengthening of austenite by niobium during hot rolling of micro-alloyed steel,” Mater. Sci. Technol., 2(2), 146-153.
  9. Erden, M. A., Gündüz, S., Karabulut, H., & Türkmen, M. (2016). “Effect of vanadium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of low carbon micro-alloyed powder metallurgy steels,” Mater. Test., 58(5), 433-437.
  10. Erneman, J., Schwind, M., Liu, P., Nilsson, J. O., Andren, H. O., & Ågren, J. (2004). “Precipitation reactions caused by nitrogen uptake during service at high temperatures of a niobium stabilised austenitic stainless steel,” Acta Mater., 52(14), 4337-4350.
  11. Filipovic, M., Kamberovic, Z., Korac, M., & Gavrilovski, M. (2013). “Microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe–Cr–C–Nb white cast irons,” Mater. Des., 47, 41-48.
  12. Hemmati, I., Huizenga, R. M., Ocelík, V., & De Hosson, J. T. M. (2013). “Microstructural design of hard facing Ni–Cr–B–Si–C alloys,” Acta Mater., 61(16), 6061-6070.
  13. Huth, S., Krasokha, N., & Theisen, W. (2009). “Development of wear and corrosion resistant cold-work tool steels produced by diffusion alloying,” Wear, 267(1-4), 449-457.
  14. ISO 5832-1, Implants for surgery-metallic materials, Part 1: Wrought stainless steel, International for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  15. Itman Filho, A., Silva, R. V., Cardoso, W. D. S., & Casteletti, L. C. (2014). “Effect of niobium in the phase transformation and corrosion resistance of one austenitic-ferritic stainless steel,” Mater. Res., 17(4), 801-806.
  16. Jujur, I. N., Sah, J., Bakri, A., & Wargadipura, A. H. S. (2015). “Analysis of oxide inclusions on medical grade 316L stainless steel using local raw,” Int. J. Technol., 6(7), 1184-1190.
  17. Karabulut, H., Türkmen, M., Erden, M. A., & Gündüz, S. (2016). “Effect of different current values on microstructure and mechanical properties of microalloyed steels joined by the submerged arc welding method,” Metals, 6(11), 281.
  18. Källqvist, J., & Andrén, H. O. (1999). “Microanalysis of a stabilised austenitic stainless steel after long term ageing,” Mat. Sci. Eng. A, 270(1), 27-32.
  19. Laing, P. G. (1979). Clinical Experience with Prosthetic Materials: Historical Perspectives, Current Problems, and Future Directions. Corrosion and Degradation of Implant Materials. ASTM STP 684, B.C. Syrett and A. Acharya, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, 202.
  20. Mikrolegiranih, R. M. L. (2011). “Investigation into the mechanical properties of micro-alloyed as-cast steel,” Mater. Tehnol., 45(2), 159-162.
  21. Pickering, F. B., & Keown, S. (1981). “Niobium in stainless steels. In Niobium,” Proceedings of the International Symposium. Warrendale, PA: Met. Soc. AIME, 1113-1142.
  22. Daljinder Singh, Rupinder Singh, K.S.Boparai, Ilenia Farina, Luciano Feo and Anita Kamra Verma (2017). “In-vitro studies of SS 316 L biomedical implants prepared by FDM, vapor smoothing and investment casting,” Compos. B. Eng., 132, 107-114.
  23. Solenthaler, C., Ramesh, M., Uggowitzer, P. J., & Spolenak, R. (2015). “Precipitation strengthening of nb-stabilized TP347 austenitic steel by a dispersion of secondary Nb (C, N) formed upon a short-term hardening heat treatment,” Mat. Sci. Eng. A, 647, 294-302.
  24. Suhendra, N., 2005. “Analysis of mechanical and thermal responses of total hip joint replacement acetabular components using fem models,” Prosiding Semiloka Teknologi Simulasi dan Komputasi serta Aplikasi, 95-103.
  25. Theisen, W., Siebert, S., & Huth, S. (2007). “Wear-resistant steels and casting alloys containing niobium carbide,” Steel Res. Int., 78(12), 921-928.
  26. G. Tither (2001) Progress in Niobium Markets and Technology 1981–2001, Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society, Metals and Materials Society Minerals. Ed. Niobium Science & Technology: Proceedings of the International Symposium Niobium 2001 (Orlando, Florida, USA) (Niobium 2001 Ltd, 2002). ISBN 9780971206809.
  27. Y. Minami, H. Kimura, M. Tanimura. (1985). New Developments in Stainless Steel Technology, ASM, Metals Park, OH.
  28. Singh, J., Singh, R., Singh, H., & Verma, A. K. (2018). “Investigations for mechanical properties and biocompatibility of SS-316L implant prepared as rapid investment casting for batch production,” Sādhanā, 43(5), 1-10.
  29. Silva, A. E. D., Melo, I. N. R. D., Pinheiro, I. P., & Silva, L. R. D. (2021). “Influence of Niobium Addition on Microstructure and Machinability of High Chromium Cast Iron,” Mat. Res., 24



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ajche.63778

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1087 | views : 506

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ASEAN Journal of Chemical Engineering  (print ISSN 1655-4418; online ISSN 2655-5409) is published by Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada.