Extraction of Java Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) Using Microwave-Assisted Hydro Distillation in Pilot Scale: Parametric Study and Modelling

https://doi.org/10.22146/ajche.79220

Yeni Variyana(1), Zuhdi Ma'sum(2), Donny Satria Bhuana(3), Mahfud Mahfud(4*)

(1) Department of Industrial Chemical Engineering Technology, Politeknik Negeri Lampung, Jl. Soekarno Hatta 10, Rajabasa, Bandar Lampung 35144, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Tri Bhuana Tunggal Dewi, Jl. Telaga Warna, Tlogomas, Malang 65151, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Jl. Arief Rahman Hakim, Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Jl. Arief Rahman Hakim, Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This study aims to extract oil from Java lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) using the pilot-scale Microwave-Assisted Hydro distillation method (distiller volume 10,000 mL). The operating variables of this research are the extraction time, the microwave power, and the ratio of the mass of the material to the solvent (F/S ratio). The results showed an increase in the yield of lemongrass oil along with the increase in extraction time using the Microwave-Assisted Hydro distillation (MAHD) method, and this trend will continue to occur as microwave heating is selective and volumetric. Thus, there is a tendency to increase yield with increasing power. In general, it follows that the higher the power, the higher the yield. The energy received by the material to be converted into heat has caused the essential oil yield to be more abundant, with the highest yield being obtained at 800 W. The increase in the material to solvent ratio increased the oil yield up to a certain point. However, the yield started declining after the F/S ratio of 0.08 was reached. The first order kinetic model well represents the extraction process at a pilot scale. The pilot scale's oil yield is slightly lower than the laboratory scale MAHD. Compositional analysis of the result suggests that the main components of Java lemongrass oil are Geranial (30.06%), Z-Citral (25.88%), Eugenol (12.88%), and Beta-Myrcene (12.84%).


Keywords


Java Lemongrass; Cymbopogon citratus; Extraction; Microwave-Assisted Hydro Distillation; Pilot Scale

Full Text:

PDF


References

Abdelhadi, M., Meullemiestre, A., Gelicus, A., Hassani, A., and Rezzoug, S.A., 2015. “Intensification of Hypericum perforatum L. oil isolation by solvent-free microwave extraction.” Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 93, 621–631. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2014.04.012

Amenaghawon, N.A., Okhueleigbe, K.E., Ogbeide, S.E., and Okieimen, C.O., 2014. “Modeling the Kinetics of Essential Oils Recovery From Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon Spp.) by Steam Distillation.” J. Eng. Res. 18, 115–121.

Bhuana, D.S., Ma’Sum, Z., and Mahfud, M., 2021. “Optimization of extraction of lemongrass leaves (Cymhopogon citratus) with microwave-assisted hydrodistillation using Box-Behnken design.” AIP Conf. Proc. 2370. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0062180

Chemat, F., Abert-Vian, M., Fabiano-Tixier, A.S., Strube, J., Uhlenbrock, L., Gunjevic, V., and Cravotto, G., 2019. “Green extraction of natural products. Origins, Current Status, and Future Challenges.” TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2019.05.037

Clain, E., Baranauskienė, R., Kraujalis, P., Šipailienė, A., Maždžierienė, R., Kazernavičiūtė, R., El Kalamouni, C., and Venskutonis, P.R., 2018. “Biorefining of Cymbopogon nardus from Reunion Island into essential oil and antioxidant fractions by conventional and high pressure extraction methods.” Ind. Crops Prod. 126, 158–167. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.10.015

Covelo, E.F., Andrade, M.L., and Vega, F.A., 2004. “Heavy metal adsorption by humic umbrisols: Selectivity sequences and competitive sorption kinetics.” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 280, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.jcis.2004.07.024

Ferhat, M.A., Meklati, B.Y., Smadja, J., and Chemat, F., 2006. “An improved microwave Clevenger apparatus for distillation of essential oils from orange peel” 1112, 121–126. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2005.12.030

Filly, A., Fernandez, X., Minuti, M., Visinoni, F., Cravotto, G., and Chemat, F., 2014. “Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: From laboratory to pilot and industrial scale.” Food Chem. 150. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.10.139

Gao, M., Song, B.-Z., and Liu, C.-Z., 2006. “Dynamic microwave-assisted extrac-tion of flavonoids from Saussurea medusa Maxim cultured cells.” Biochem. Eng. J. 32, 79–83. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2006.09.004

Guenther, E., 1990. Minyak Atsiri, Jilid IVB, diterjemahkan oleh Ketaren, Minyak Atsiri. UI Press, Jakarta.

Haqqyana, H., Tania, V.F.W., Suyadi, A.M., Kusuma, H.S., Altway, A., and Mahfud, M., 2020. “Kinetic study in the extraction of essential oil from clove (Syzgium aromaticum) stem using microwave hydrodistillation.” Moroccan J. Chem. 8, 64–71.

Ho, Y., Harouna-oumarou, H.A., Fauduet, H., and Porte, C., 2005. “Kinetics and model building of leaching of water-soluble compounds of Tilia sapwood” 45, 169–173. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.seppur.2005.03.007

Jafari, B., Ebadi, A., Aghdam, B.M., and Hassanzade, Z., 2012. “Antibacterial Activitiesof Lemon Grass Methanol Extract and Essence on Pathogenic Bacteria.” Am. J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 12, 1042–1046. https://doi.org/10.5829/ idosi.aejaes.2012.12.08.6551

Jokić, S., Velić, D., Bilić, M., Bucić-Kojić, A., Planinić, M., and Srecko, T., 2010. “Modelling of the process of solid-liquid extraction of total polyphenols from soybeans.” Czech J. Food Sci. 28, 206–212.

Koul, V.K., Gandotra, B.M., Koul, S., Ghosh, S., Tikoo, C.L., and Gupta, A.K., 2004. “Steam distillation of lemon grass (Cymbopogon spp.).” Indian J. Chem. Technol. 11, 135–139.

Kusuma, H.S., and Mahfud, M., 2018. “Kinetic studies on extraction of essential oil from sandalwood (Santalum album) by microwave air-hydrodistillation method.” Alexandria Eng. J. 57, 1163–1172. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.007

Kusuma, H.S., and Mahfud, M., 2017. “The extraction of essential oils from patchouli leaves (Pogostemon cablin Benth) using a microwave air-hydrodistillation method as a new green technique.” R. Soc. Chem. Adv. 7, 1336–1347. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6ra25894h

Kusuma, H. S., and Mahfud, M., 2017. “Comparison of kinetic models of oil extraction from sandalwood by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation.” Int. Food Res. J. 24, 1697–1702.

Ma’sum, Z., Bhuana, D.S., and Mahfud, M., 2021. “Kinetics study of microwave hydrodestillation (MHD) fresh and dried Cymbopogon Nardus leaves.” AIP Conf. Proc. 2349, 020057. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0051768

Ma’sum, Z., Kusuma, H.S., Altway, A., and Mahfud, M., 2019. “On the effect of the ratio of the distiler volume and that of the microwave cavity on the extraction of Cymbopogon nardus dried leaves by microwave hydrodistillation.” J. Chem. Technol. Metall. 54, 778–786.

Masum, Z., Mahfud, M., and Altway, A., 2019. “Parameter for scale-up of extraction Cymbopogon nardus dry leaf using microwave assisted hydro-distillation.” J. Appl. Eng. Sci. 17, 126–133. https://doi.org/10.5937/jaes17-20216

Milojević, S.Ž., Radosavljević, D.B., Pavićević, V.P., Pejanović, S., and Veljković, V.B., 2013. “Modelovanje kinetike hidrodestilacije etarskog ulja iz biljnih materijala.” Hem. Ind. 67, 843–859. https://doi.org/10.2298/ HEMIND121026009M

Ministry of Trade of the Republic of Indonesia, 2011. “Indonesian Essential Oils : The Scents of Natural Life,” in: Handbook of Commodity Profile. Jakarta, pp. 1–47.

Mohamed Hanaa, A.R., Sallam, Y.I., El-Leithy, A.S., and Aly, S.E., 2012. “Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil as affected by drying methods.” Ann. Agric. Sci. 57, 113–116. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.aoas.2012.08.004

Moradalizadeh, M., Akhgar, M.R., and Faghihi-Zarandi, A., 2013. “Microwave-assisted and convention- al hydrodistillation of essential oils from Apium graveolens L.” Asian J. Chem. 25, 79–81. https://doi.org/ 10.14233/ajchem.2013.12741

Moradi, S., Fazlali, A., and Hamedi, H., 2018. “Microwave-assisted hydro-distillation of essential oil from rosemary: Comparison with traditional distillation.” Avicenna J. Med. Biotechnol. 10. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s13197-011-0610-y

Mukarram, M., Choudhary, S., Khan, M.A., Poltronieri, P., Masroor, M., Khan, A., Ali, J., Kurjak, D., and Shahid, M., 2021. “Lemongrass essential oil components with antimicrobial and anticancer activities” 1–23. https://doi.org/ 10.20944/preprints202106.0500.v1

Nitthiyah, J., Nour, A., K., R., and Akindoyo, J., 2017. “Microwave Assisted Hydrodistillation - An Overview of Mechanism and Heating Properties.” Aust. J. Basic Appl. Sci. 11, 22–29.

Onawunmi, G.O., Yisak, W.A., and Ogunlana, E.O., 1984. “Antibacterial constituents in the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 12, 279–286. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(84)90057-6

Piaru, S.P., Perumal, S., Cai, L.W., Mahmud, R., Majid, A.M.S.A., Ismail, S., and Man, C.N., 2012. “Chemical composition, anti-angiogenic and cytotoxicity activities of the essential oils of Cymbopogan citratus (lemon grass) against colorectal and breast carcinoma cell lines.” J. Essent. Oil Res. 24, 453–459. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 10412905.2012.703496

Ranitha, M., Nour, Abdurahman H, Sulaiman, Z.A., Nour, Azhari H, and S, T.R., 2014. “A Comparative study of lemongrass (Cymbopogon Citratus) essential oil extracted by Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation (MAHD) and Conventional Hydrodistillation (HD) Method.” https://doi.org/ 10.7763/IJCEA.2014.V5.360

Raynie, D.E., 2000. Extraction, 1st ed, Encyclopedia of Separation Science. Academic Press, San Diego.

Sastrohamidjojo, H., 2004. “Kimia Minyak Atsiri.” Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta.

Stashenko, E.E., Jaramillo, B.E., and Mart, J.R., 2004. “Comparison of different extraction methods for the analysis of volatile secondary metabolites of Lippia alba (Mill) N . E . Brown, grown in Colombia , and evaluation of its in vitro antioxidant activity” 1025, 93–103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma. 2003.10.058

Trang, D.T., Hoang, T.K. Van, Nguyen, T.T.M., Van Cuong, P., Dang, N.H., Dang, H.D., Quang, T.N., and Dat, N.T., 2020. “Essential oils of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in A549 Lung cancer cells.” Biomed Res. Int. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/ 2020/5924856

Tzortzakis, N.G., and Economakis, C.D., 2007. “Antifungal activity of lemongrass (Cympopogon citratus L.) essential oil against key postharvest pathogens.” Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 8, 253–258. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.ifset.2007.01.002

Variyana, Y., and Mahfud, M., 2020. “Kinetics study using solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from Allium sativum L.” Key Eng. Mater. 840, 186–192. https://doi.org/ 10.4028/ www.scientific.net/KEM.840.186

Variyana, Y., Mahfud, M., Ma’Sum, Z., Ardianto, B.I., Syahbana, L.P., and Bhuana, D.S., 2019. “Optimization of microwave hydro-distillation of lemongrass leaves (Cymbopogon nardus) by response surface methodology.” IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng. 673. https://doi.org/ 10.1088/1757-899X/673/1/012006



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ajche.79220

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 439 | views : 255

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ASEAN Journal of Chemical Engineering  (print ISSN 1655-4418; online ISSN 2655-5409) is published by Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada.