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METALLOTHIONEIN PADA HATI IKAN SEBAGAI BIOMARKER PENCEMARAN KADMIUM (Cd) DI PERAIRAN KALIGARANG SEMARANG (Metallothionein in The Fish Liver as Biomarker of Cadmium (Cd) Pollution in Kaligarang River Semarang)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18557

Nur Kusuma Dewi(1*), Purwanto Purwanto(2), Henna Rya Sunoko(3)

(1) Jurusan Biologi, FMIPA Universitas Negeri Semarang Gedung D6, Jl. Raya Sekaran Gunungpati Semarang
(2) Jurusan Teknik Kimia Universitas Diponegoro, Kampus UNDIP, Jl. Prof Sudharto Semarang
(3) Program Doktor Ilmu Lingkungan Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro Jl. Imam Bardjo, SH No.5 Semarang
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Penanda dini pencemaran kadmium  di sungai Kaligarang perlu diketahui sebagai alat monitoring pencemaran logam berat,  mengingat sungai Kaligarang digunakan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan air minum bagi masyarakat kota Semarang. Ikan yang hidup di Kaligarang diambil sampelnya secara random. Sampel diambil hatinya, untuk diperiksa ada tidaknya metallothionein pengikat Cd, menggunakan  HPLC. Sebagai kontrol diambil sampel ikan secara  random, dari perairan yang tidak tercemar yakni dari Balai Benih Ikan Air Tawar. Sampel  dianalisis sama seperti sampel ikan dari sungai Kaligarang. Hasil analisis  HPLC sampel dari Kaligarang  dibandingkan dengan sampel ikan dari Balai Benih Ikan untuk menentukan ada tidaknya metallothionein pengikat Cd. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada hati ikan yang hidup di Kaligarang didapatkan metallothionein-Cd, sedangkan ikan yang hidup di Balai Benih Air Tawar tidak ditemukan metallothionein-Cd. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa ikan dari balai Benih tidak mengakumulasikan Cd, sedang ikan dari Kaligarang mengkumulasikan Cd. Hasil penelitian ini diperkuat oleh hasil AAS sampel air sungai Kaligarang mengandung Cd dan sampel air  Balai Benih ikan tidak mengandung Cd.  Dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa metallothionein-Cd merupakan Biomarker pencemaran Cd di Kaligarang. Biomarker metallothionein yang ditemukan dapat digunakan sebagai alat deteksi dini dalam monitoring pencemaran Cd  di perairan. 

ABSTRACT

Early markers of cadmium pollution in the river Kaligarang need to know as heavy metal pollution monitoring tool, given the river Kaligarang used to meet the needs of drinking water for the city of Semarang.  Fish lived in Kaligarang were collected randomly as sample. The liver of the fish were taken and examined for the presence of Cd-binding metallothionein, using HPLC. As the control, fish were collected randomly from unpolluted water, i.e. from Freshwater Fish Hatchery, Ungaran. These samples were analyzed using the same method with the samples taken from Kaligarang. HPLC result of Kaligarang samples was compared with HPLC result of unpolluted samples to determine the presence of Cd-binding metallothionein. The result is metallothionein-Cd was present in fish taken from Kaligarang, whereas fish from unpolluted waters did not contain metallothionein-Cd. This means that fish from Freshwater Fish Hatchery, Ungaran did not accumulated Cd, whereas fish from Kaligarang accumulated Cd. This was supported by the result from AAS; water samples from Kaligarang contained Cd and water samples from Freshwater Fish Hatchery, Ungaran did not contain Cd. It was concluded that the presence of Metallothionein-Cd  may be considered as biomarker of Cd pollution in Kaligarang. Metallothionein biomarker found may be used as monitoring tool for Cd  pollution in aquatic. 


Keywords


alat monitoring biomarker; ikan; kadmium; logam berat; metallothionein; pencemaran; polutan; biomarker; biomonitoring; cadmium; contamination; fish; heavy metal; metallothionein; pollutan



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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18557

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