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ISOLASI, SKRINING DAN IDENTIFIKASI JAMUR XILANOLITIK LOKAL YANG BERPOTENSI SEBAGAI AGENSIA PEMUTIH PULP YANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN (Isolation, Screening and Identification Xylanolytic Local Fungi that Potentially as Pulp Bleaching Agents)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18559

Elisa Nurnawati(1*), Sebastian Margino(2), Erni Martani(3), Sarto Sarto(4)

(1) Jurusan Biologi, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Sriwijaya, Indralaya, Sumatera Selatan 30662
(2) Laboratorium Mikrobiologi, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Laboratorium Mikrobiologi, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(4) Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Xilanase merupakan enzim yang berfungsi luas dalam bidang industri. Xilanase digunakan sebagai perlakuan awal proses pemutihan kertas di industri pulp dan kertas sehingga dapat mengurangi penggunaan senyawa klorin yang berbahaya bagi lingkungan. Xilanase yang cocok digunakan dalam industri pulp dan kertas seharusnya bebas dari aktivitas selulase. Jamur merupakan salah satu kelompok mikrobia yang mampu menghasilkan xilanase. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh isolat jamur unggul lokal penghasil xilanase dari tanah yang diasumsikan memiliki kandungan xilan tinggi. Tanah di sekitar industri pulp dan kertas; hutan akasia di Kab. Muara Enim dan Ogan Ilir, Sumatera Selatan; hutan Wanagama, Yogyakarta; penggergajian kayu di kota Palembang dan Yogyakarta serta TPA Palembang digunakan sebagai sumber isolat jamur. Berdasarkan skrining awal dalam media basal xilan agar diketahui bahwa dari 111 isolat jamur yang diperoleh, sebagian besar mempunyai potensi menghasilkan xilanase, akan tetapi hanya 12 isolat yang mempunyai kemampuan xilanolitik tinggi. Skrining selanjutnya dilakukan pada media basal xilan cair menunjukkan bahwa jamur yang diidentifikasi sebagai Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium simplicissimum, Aspergillus tamarii dan Monocillium sp. berpotensi unggul dalam menghasilkan xilanase dibandingkan isolat lainnya berdasarkan aktivitas enzim spesifiknya. Keempat jamur tersebut diketahui juga memiliki aktivitas lignolitik dan selulolitik. Oleh karena itu, xilanase yang diproduksi ke empat jamur tersebut berpotensi dikembangkan sebagai agen pemutih pulp.

ABSTRACT

Xylanase has great potential for industry application. Application of xylanase can be done in pretreatment of pulp bleaching in the pulp and paper industry. Enzyme application can reduce the use of chlorine compounds that are harmful to the environment. Therefore, xylanase that used in pulp bleaching should be free of cellulase activity. Fungi are one of the groups of microbes that are able to produce xylanase. The aims of this study was to obtain local xylanase-producing fungal isolates from soil that assumed contain of xylan. The source of fungal isolates were the soil around the pulp and paper industry; Acacia forests in the district Ogan Ilir and Muara Enim, South Sumatra; Wanagama, Yogyakarta; sawmills in Palembang and Yogyakarta; and Palembang landfill. Based on the initial screening in the agar basal medium, 111 fungal isolates were obtained. Most of them were the xylanase-producing fungi, but only 12 fungal isolates that have high xylanolytic capabilities. Further screening was performed on xylan liquid basal medium. The results showed that the fungus identified as Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium simplicissimum, Aspergillus tamarii and Monocillium have higher xylanase specific activity than the other isolates. They were also have lignolytic and cellulolytic activities. Therefore, fungal xylanase potentially developed as a pulp bleaching agent.

Keywords


industri kertas; jamur tanah; pemutihan pulp; xilanase; pulp and paper industry; pulp bleaching soil fungi; xylanase



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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18559

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