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PENGARUH LOKASI TUMBUH, UMUR TANAMAN DAN VARIASI JENIS DESTILASI TERHADAP KOMPOSISI SENYAWA MINYAK ATSIRI RIMPANG Curcuma mangga PRODUKSI BEBERAPA SENTRA DI YOGYAKARTA (Impact of Growing Sites, Plant Ages and Variance of Distillation Types to Curcuma)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18560

Endang Astuti(1*), Retno Sunarminingsih(2), Umar Anggara Jenie(3), Sofia Mubarika(4), Sismindari Sismindari(5)

(1) Jurusan Kimia, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281
(2) Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281
(3) Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281
(4) Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281
(5) Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Minyak atsiri rimpang Curcuma mangga telah diketahui bersifat toksik terhadap beberapa jenis sel kanker. Toksisitas minyak atsiri dipengaruhi oleh komposisi senyawa penyusunnya. Komposisi minyak atsiri dipengaruhi oleh berbagai faktor ekologi dan metode isolasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh lokasi tumbuh, umur tanaman dan variasi jenis destilasi terhadap komposisi senyawa minyak atsiri rimpang C. mangga. Untuk mempelajari pengaruh lokasi tumbuh diambil rimpang C. mangga yang berasal dari beberapa daerah di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Pengaruh umur tanaman terhadap komposisi senyawa dalam minyak atsiri digunakan rimpang C. mangga umur 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, 11 dan 12 bulan, sedangkan jenis destilasi yang digunakan adalah destilasi uap dan uap air. Analisis komponen senyawa minyak atsiri digunakan Kromatografi Gas-Spektrometer Massa (KG-SM). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rimpang yang berasal dari daerah dataran rendah memiliki jenis senyawa yang lebih banyak daripada dataran tinggi dan dimungkinkan karena curah hujan di dataran rendah lebih kecil daripada dataran tinggi. Minyak atsiri rimpang C. mangga optimum apabila tanaman dipanen pada saat umur 8-10 bulan dan jenis destilasi berpengaruh terhadap komposisi minyak atsiri.  Namun begitu, senyawa utama minyak atsiri rimpang C. mangga untuk semua variasi perlakuan adalah sama yaitu β-osimen, β-pinen, β-mirsen dan p-sineol. 

ABSTRACT

The essential oil of Curcuma mangga has been known to be toxic to several cancer cells. The toxicity is influenced by the substances composition. The substances composition of the essential oil is influenced by ecological factor and isolation method. Therefore, this study have several aims to recognize the impact of growing sites, plant ages and variance of distillation types to C. mangga essential oil compositions. To study the impact of the growing sites, C. mangga samples are collected from several places in Yogyakarta. To determine the impact of substances composition of C. mangga essential oil, samples of 1, 3, 7, 10, 11 and 12 months were chosen, while for distillation method, steam and water-steam distillations were used. For C. mangga essential oil’s susbtances analysis, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) was performed. The results of study shown that the land samples contain more substances variance in comparison with the planteau samples, it is probably influenced by the rainfall frequency of land areas, which is lower than planteau areas. In addition, the optimum essential oil are the 8-10 month samples and the distillation method influences to the essential oil compositions. However, all variance treatment has the same main component, i.e., β-ocimene, β-pinene, β-myrcene and p-cineole. 

Keywords


jenis destilasi; lokasi tumbuh; minyak atsiri; umur tanaman; age of plant; Curcuma mangga; distillation type; essential oil growing site



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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18560

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