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PENGARUH KONTAMINASI LOGAM BERAT DI SEDIMEN PADA KOMUNITAS MAKROZOOBENTOS DI BEBERAPA SITU DAN WADUK DI JAWA BARAT (Effect of Heavy Metals Contamination in Sediments on The Macrozoobenthos Community in Some Small Lakes and Reservoirs)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18769

Jojok Sudarso(1*), Tri Suryono(2), Gunawan Pratama Yoga(3)

(1) Pusat Penelitian Limnologi, Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia, Jl. Jakarta-Bogor Km 46, Cibinong, Kabupaten Bogor 16911.
(2) Pusat Penelitian Limnologi, Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia, Jl. Jakarta-Bogor Km 46, Cibinong, Kabupaten Bogor 16911.
(3) Pusat Penelitian Limnologi, Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia, Jl. Jakarta-Bogor Km 46, Cibinong, Kabupaten Bogor 16911.
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Keberadaan logam berat di ekosistem akuatik telah sering dilaporkan menimbulkan masalah ke biota perairan. Salah satu biota perairan yang memiliki resiko untuk terpapar logam berat dari sedimen adalah organisme makrozoobentos. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan pengaruh kontaminasi logam berat di sedimen pada struktur komunitas makrozoobentos yang berada di ekosistem lentik (situ dan waduk). Penelitian ini telah dilakukan pada bulan Juni 2009 - September 2011 di beberapa situ dan waduk yang berada di Provinsi Jawa Barat dan Jakarta. Sampel makrozoobentos dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan alat Ekman grab. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat korelasi antara indeks keanekaragaman makrozoobentos dengan kontaminasi logam arsen yang tinggi. Kontribusi logam Pb dan Cd dalam memberikan pengaruh pada indeks keanekaragaman relatif masih kecil. Keberadaan makrozoobentos Coleoptera (Simsonia sp.), lintah (Placobdella sp.), larva chironomid (Ablabesmyia sp.), dan (Tanytarsus sp.) relatif toleran dengan kontaminasi logam arsen di sedimen yang tinggi, pH dan suhu yang rendah. Penggunaan indeks keanekaragaman pada penelitian ini masih relatif sensitif dalam mencerminkan gangguan akibat kontaminasi logam berat di sedimen.

 

ABSTRACT

Presence of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems have been reported to cause problems in aquatic organisms. One of the aquatic organisms that have risk for exposure by heavy metals from sediments is macrozoobenthos. This paper aims to describe the influence of heavy metal contamination in sediments to the structure of macrozoobenthos communities in lentic ecosystem (small lakes and reservoirs). This study was conducted in June 2009 to September 2011 in some small lakes and reservoirs which are in West Java and Jakarta provinces. Macrozoobenthos samples were collected by using Ekman grab. The results showed that there is a low correlation index with a high diversity of macrozoobenthos contamination by arsenic. The contribution of Pb and Cd in giving effect to diversity index is relatively small. The existence of macrozoobenthos Coleoptera (Simsonia sp.), Leeches (Placobdella sp.), Chironomid larvae (Ablabesmyia sp.), and (Tanytarsus sp.) relatively tolerant to high contamination arsenic in sediment, and low pH and temperature. The use of diversity index in this study was relatively sensitive to reflect the disruption caused by heavy metal.


Keywords


logam berat; makrozoobentos; sedimen; situ; waduk; polutan; heavy metals; macrozoobenthos; sediment; small lakes; reservoirs; pollutant



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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18769

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