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KARAKTERISTIK SPASIAL PERMUKIMAN VERNAKULAR PERAIRAN DI SULAWESI TENGAH (Characteristic Settlement on The Spatial of Aquatic Vernacular at Central Sulawesi)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18781

Ahda Mulyati(1*), Nindyo Soewarno(2), Arya Ronald(3), Ahmad Sarwadi(4)

(1) Jurusan Arsitektur dan Perencanaan Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika no. 2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281
(2) Jurusan Arsitektur dan Perencanaan Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika no. 2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Jurusan Arsitektur dan Perencanaan Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika no. 2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281
(4) Jurusan Arsitektur dan Perencanaan Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika no. 2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Permukiman masyarakat perairan terbentuk karena kondisi alam dan geografi yang rentan terhadap bencana. Masyarakat setempat membangun rumah tinggal berbentuk panggung, di mana sebagian atau seluruhnya berada di atas air, menggunakan bahan bangunan yang mudah diperoleh di lingkungannya. Tujuan penelitian untuk mendapatkan gambaran karakteristik spasial permukiman vernakular perairan khususnya di Sulawesi Tengah. Penelitian menggunakan metode studi kasus dengan pendekatan kualitatif, pengambilan data dilakukan secara naturalistik dan teknik analisis secara induktif. Awalnya permukiman dibentuk oleh pemukim karena kebutuhan tempat bernaung dan berlindung. Tempat dipilih yang dapat memberi keamanan bersama keluarga, sehingga pulau-pulau karang menjadi pilihannya. Kelompok terdiri atas beberapa keluarga, membangun tempat tinggal mengelilingi daratan bukit karang sesuai pengetahuan lokalnya. Dalam perkembangannya, jumlah permukim bertambah, sehingga unit-unit permukiman tumbuh dan berkembang ke laut. Permukiman terdiri atas deretan rumah tinggal dihubungkan oleh jalan atau jembatan kayu (tetean). Unit-unit permukiman membentuk spasial di mana rumah tinggal mengelilingi ruang-ruang publik. Interaksi sosial dilakukan pada dego-dego, jalan setapak (tetean) dan ruang-ruang publik permukiman. Interaksi lain biasanya dilakukan pada saat melaut mencari ikan. Laut sebagai akses antar unit-unit lingkungan, tempat bermain bagi anak-anak dan ruang kehidupan bagi pemukim. Rumah tinggal merupakan ruang privat, sedang dego-dego, tetean jalan dan pasar adalah ruang publik. Spasial permukiman membentuk pola melingkar satu arah mengelilingi daratan bukit karang atau linier satu dan dua arah. Orientasi lain dan bersifat privat yaitu laut sehingga ruang belakang rumah tinggal (tatambe) menghadap ke laut. Pusat permukiman adalah mesjid sebagai ruang sakral sekaligus ruang publik.

 

ABSTRACT

Community settlements waters formed due to natural and geographical conditions that are vulnerable to disasters. They have built houses, where the majority or entirely are above of water, using the building materials which are easy to obtain at the environment. This research purposes to get an idea of the spatial characteristics of the vernacular waters of settlements, especially at Central Sulawesi. This research use case study method with qualitative approach and data were collectend with naturalistic and analysis technique was inductive. The settlements of aquatic community were formed because of natural conditions and geography condition that are particularly vulnerable to disasters. At first, the settlements were established by the settlers because of the need for shelter and refuge. They chosed a shelter that can provide security with his family, so that the islands adjacent to the place that gives life is the choice. A group of several families eventually built their houses around the inland cliffs appropriate to their local knowledge. In the development of settlers grew, the settlement units grow and develop over the sea. Also the houses made a linear line form around the coral reef. The settlement consists of a row of houses (very dense on the mainland island) which are connected by a road or bridge timber (tetean). These units settlement form a spatial between the houses around public spaces that are streets, mosques, schools, village halls, shops, washing bath, and places to play. Social interaction settlers were carried on the front porch, pathways, and public spaces in neighborhoods. Another interaction is usually done when they are fishing. The sea also serves as an access between the units and a playground for neighborhood children as well as space for the life of settlers. The residential house is a private space but the front porch and the road is public space. The spatial of settlement forms a circular pattern around the land of the cliff, or a linear one-and two-way and the street or tetean serves as the access and public space which is as the central orientation. The other orientation as private spaces is ‘the sea’ so that behind of the houses face the sea. The central of settlement is the mosque or mushollah which has function as sacred space and public space.


Keywords


karakteristik; perairan; permukiman; spasial; characteristic; spatial; settlement; vernacular; aquatic



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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18781

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