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INTERVENSI MANUSIA TERHADAP KOMUNITAS RHIZOSFIR: REVIEW (Human Disturbance on Rhizosphere Communities: Review)

Enny Widyati(1*)

(1) Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hutan, Jl. Gunung Batu No. 5, Bogor, 16610.
(*) Corresponding Author



Walaupun tersembunyi di dalam tanah komunitas rhizosfir merupakan penentu kehidupan di muka bumi dan berperan penting pada pelestarian alam. Rhizosfir merupakan daerah di sekitar perakaran tanaman yang dihuni oleh berbagai mikrobia tanah yang berperan dalam menentukan pertumbuhan dan kesehatan tanaman. Struktur dan komposisi komunitas mikrobia sangat dipengaruhi oleh macam, konsentrasi dan komposisi eksudat akar. Perubahan yang terjadi pada tanaman (umumnya sangat dipengaruhi oleh aktivitas manusia) mempengaruhi komunitas rhizosfir, sebaliknya komunitas rhizosfir akan menentukan struktur tumbuhan dan fungsi ekosistem. Review ini membahas pengaruh aktivitas manusia yang mempengaruhi kualitas lingkungan terhadap komunitas mikrobia di rhizosfir, yang merupakan hasil kajian dari berbagai sumber terbaru yang dianalisis secara induktif. Aktivitas manusia yang dikaji meliputi praktek pertanian intensif, deforestasi hutan menjadi perkebunan serta perubahan iklim. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa praktek monokulturisasi telah menurunkan biodiversitas mikrobia rhizosfir, menurunkan kinerja enzim tanah dan menurunkan keragaman dan konsentrasi senyawa glukosinolat untuk melawan patogen. Pengolahan tanah, pemupukan anorganik dan penggunaan pestisida telah menurunkan biodiversitas mikrobia rhizosfir. Sebaliknya pemupukan organik tidak berpengaruh terhadap biodiversitas mikrobia tanah. Perubahan fungsi hutan menjadi kebun intensif telah merubah dominansi kelompok mikrobia serta kemampuan mikrobia sesuai fungsinya di ekosistem. Perubahan iklim berdampak pada peningkatan suhu tanah, hal ini telah mengubah komposisi mikrobia rhizosfir. Perubahan komposisi, dominansi dan kemampuan mikrobia di rhizosfir tersebut dapat merubah komposisi populasi tumbuhan di atasnya. Hal ini dapat mengubah keseimbangan dan fungsi ekosistem yang berakibat pada berubahnya kesejahteraan manusia.


Even though it is hidden underground, rhizosphere communities define the life in this earth planet and has an important role on nature preservation. Rhizosphere is the zone of soil adjacent immediately to plant roots which inhabited by varies species of beneficial soil microbes for facilitating plants growth and health. Human activities are strongly influence on plant performance. Alteration on plant growth and health statues determine rhizosphere communities that will define the vegetation structures and ultimately ecosystem functions. This paper discuss the negative influences of human activities (anthropogenic factors) on the environment to the rhizosphere communities. Especially the impacts of intensive farming, deforestation and climate changes. It is sourced from current referrences in inductive analysis. One of intensive farming management is monoculture that is not only drastically depleted microbes diversity in the rhizosphere hence decresed soil enzimes activities, but also reduced glucocynolates production, a crucial compound against pathogen. Whereas, tillage, fertilizers and pesticide application significantly diminished microbe biodiversity. Organic fertilizers, on the other hand, did not give crucial impacts this biodiversity. Modify forest into estate have changed domination of groups and lessened capability of phosphate solubilizers. While climate changes, that enhance soil temperature escalation, have altered rhizosphere microbes composition and structure. Replacement of composition, domination, abundance and capability of rhizosphere communities will modify composition and structure of vegetation aboveground. Eventually, will alter the ballance and functions of the ecosystem, which determine the wealth of human population in the earth.


climate changes; deforestation; intensive agriculture; rhizosphere; microbes community; deforestasi; komunitas mikrobia; rhizosfir; pertanian intensif; perubahan iklim

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