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KEHADIRAN PERUSAHAAN DAN POTENSI KONFLIK AGRARIA DALAM PEMANFAATAN HUTAN SAGU ALAM DI WILAYAH IMEKKO KABUPATEN SORONG SELATAN PAPUA BARAT-INDONESIA (The Presence of Sago Company and The Potential of Agrarian Conflict in The Natural Sago Consesion of Imekko at Sorong Selatan Regency, West Papua Indonesia)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.27147

Meky Sagrim(1*), Agus Irianto Sumule(2), Deny Anjelus Iyai(3)

(1) Jurusan Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Papua, Jl. Gunung Salju, Amban, Manokwari-Papua Barat, 98314.
(2) Jurusan Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Papua, Jl. Gunung Salju, Amban, Manokwari-Papua Barat, 98314.
(3) Jurusan Peternakan, Fakultas Peternakan, Universitas Papua, Jl. Gunung Salju, Amban, Manokwari, 98314.
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Abstrak

Hutan sagu alam saat ini memiliki manfaat yang besar ditinjau dari bahan pangan, substitusi pangan maupun bahan baku industri. Di kawasan timur Indonesia, sagu telah dimanfaatkan secara luas sebagai bahan pangan pokok oleh masyarakat Maluku dan Papua. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengkaji intervensi eksternal dari perusahaan terhadap jaminan subsistensi dan pendapatan masyarakat di kawasan hutan sagu alam Imekko. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada empat distrik, yaitu Inanwatan, Metemani, Kais, dan Kokoda (Imekko) kabupaten Sorong Selatan. Distrik dipilih secara purposif dengan pertimbangan memiliki karakteristik lokasi yang sesuai dengan lingkup penelitian, yaitu: (a) merupakan wilayah sebaran hutan sagu alami yang menjadi sasaran pemanfaatan oleh perusahaan; dan (b) masyarakat yang bermukim di sekitarnya yang merupakan pemilik hak ulayat atas hutan sagu alami/dusun sagu tersebut, (c) masyarakat yang terganggu jaminan subsistensi dan pendapatan akibat intervensi kedua perusahaan tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa masyarakat memiliki 8 jenis hak akses dan pemanfaatan dan dusun sagu untuk memenuhi kebutuhan subsistensi dan pendapatan masyarakat pemilik hak ulayat, yakni hak mengakses, memungut hasil, menggunakan, menguasai, mengelola, mengalihkan, memperoleh kembali, dan hak milik. Kehadiran kedua perusahaan, hak-hak tersebut menjadi terbatas hanya pada hak mengakses, penggunaan terbatas, dan memungut hasil secara terbatas. Kehadiran perusahaan berdampak terhadap terbatasnya pemenuhan kebutuhan subsistensi dan pendapatan masyarakat. Potensial terjadinya konflik, baik antara masyarakat dengan perusahaan dalam kaitan dengan akses masyarakat untuk memanfaatkan dusun sagu di dalam areal konsesi perusahaan yang yang dienklavekan maupun antar masyarakat dalam kaitan dengan masyarakat pemilik hak ulayat dusun sagunya telah masuk sebagai areal konsesi perusahaan sehingga untuk memenuhi kebutuhan subsistensi dan pendapatan terpaksa harus memanfaatkan HSA/dusun sagu milik masyarakat di luar kawasan konsesi perusahaan.


Abstract

Natural sago forests currently have great benefits in terms of food, substitution of food and raw materials for industries. In Eastern Indonesia, sago has been used extensively as a staple food by the people of Mollucans and Papuan. The research objective was to study the external intervention of the company to guarantee the subsistence and income of the Imekko community in the forest area of natural sago. The research was conducted in four districts, namely Inanwatan, Metemani, Kais and the Kokoda (Imekko) Sorong Selaatan regency. Districts selected purposively by considering having characteristics suitable locations, i.e. an area of distribution of Sago Natural Forest-targeting utilization by the company; and (b) people who live nearby and owners of customary rights over the Sago Natural Forests/sago villages, (c) community having disturbed the subsistence and income guarantee due to the intervention of both companies. The findings of this research showed that there were eight types of rights of access and use and sago villages to meet the needs of subsistence and incomes owners of customary rights, i.e. the right to access, collect the produce, use, control, manage, assign, reclaim, and property rights. These rights are limited only to the right of access, limited use and collect the produce due to the presence of both companies. Potential conflict, either between the company in terms of community access to the sago villages in the concession company that are in enclaving areas or among the public in relation to the customary communities that natural sago villages has been entered as a concession company. Therefore, to meet subsistence and income the communities now have to utilize the natural sago forest/sago village belonging to the community in outside the company's concession area.


Keywords


Hak ulayat; Hutan sagu alam; Imekko; kebutuhan subsisten; konflik; pendapatan; Land right; Natural Sago Forest; Imekko; subsistence needs; conflict; generated income

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.27147

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