Kehamilan remaja dan kejadian stunting anak usia 6 – 23 bulan di Lombok Barat

Irwansyah Irwansyah(1*), Djauhar Ismail(2), Mohammad Hakimi(3)

(1) Departemen Biostatistik, Epidemiologi dan Kesehatan Populasi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Anak, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Departemen Biostatistik, Epidemiologi dan Kesehatan Populasi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author


Teenage pregnancy and the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-23 months in West Lombok


This study aimed to analyze the risk of teenage pregnancy against stunting in children aged 6-23 months.


This study was an observational study with a matched case-control design. Control and case samples were each 55 samples, with a total sample of 110. The study subjects in the case group were children aged 6-23 months who suffered stunting. Children who did not suffer stunting were the control group. Samples were selected using two stage cluster random sampling. Analysis data used McNemar and conditional logistic regression tests with level of significance p <0.05 and confidence level (CI) 95%.


The finding of this study showed there was a significant association between teenage pregnancy and the incidence of stunting among children aged 6-23 months by controlling for the variables of maternal education, birth weight, and maternal stature (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.05-8.26).


Teenage pregnancy, maternal short stature, low birth weight, and low maternal education were factors most likely contributed to increases in the incidence of stunting.


teenage pregnancy; stunting; children ages 6-23


  1. UNSCN. Fifth report on the world nutrition situation: Nutrition for improved development outcomes. UNSCN, Geneva, Switzerland. 2004.
  2. Gibney MJ. Gizi kesehatan Masyarakat: EGC; 2005. Available from:
  3. Black RE, Victora CG, Walker SP, Bhutta ZA, Christian P, De Onis M, et al. Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. The lancet. 2013;382(9890):427-51.
  4. McDonald CM, Manji KP, Kupka R, Bellinger DC, Spiegelman D, Kisenge R, et al. Stunting and wasting are associated with poorer psychomotor and mental development in HIV-exposed Tanzanian infants. J Nutr. 2013;143(2):204-14.
  5. Stewart CP, Iannotti L, Dewey KG, Michaelsen KF, Onyango AW. Contextualising complementary feeding in a broader framework for stunting prevention. Matern Child Nutr. 2013;9(S2):27-45.
  6.  Riskesdas. Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2013. Jakarta: Kemenkes; 2013.
  7. Dinkes Propinsi NTB. Pemantauan Status Gizi Balita Provinsi NTB. Mataram: Dinkes Provinsi NTB, 2013.
  8. Gordis L. Epidemiologi (third Edision) Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; 2004.
  9. Win KM, Van der Putten M, Vajanapoom N, Amnatsatsue K. Early Pregnancy and Maternal Malnutrition as Precursors of Stunting in Children under Two Years of Age among Bhutanese Refugees, in Nepal Maternal Precursors in Stunting of Children. Thammasat International Journal of Science and Technology. 2013;18(1).
  10. Lima M, Figueira F, Ebrahim G. Malnutrition among children of adolescent mothers in a squatter community of Recife, Brazil. J Trop Pediatr. 1990;36(1):14-9.
  11. Shrimpton R, Victora CG, de Onis M, Lima RC, Blössner M, Clugston G. Worldwide timing of growth faltering: implications for nutritional interventions. Pediatrics. 2001;107(5):e75-e.
  12. Victora CG, Adair L, Fall C, Hallal PC, Martorell R, Richter L, et al. Maternal and child undernutrition: consequences for adult health and human capital. The lancet. 2008;371(9609):340-57.
  13. Olivieri F, Semproli S, Pettener D, Toselli S. Growth and malnutrition of rural Zimbabwean children (6–17 years of age). Am J Phys Anthropol. 2008;136(2):214-22.
  14. UNICEF. Tracking progress on child and maternal nutrition: a survival and development priority: UNICEF; 2009.
  15.  Abubakar A, Uriyo J, Msuya SE, Swai M, Stray-Pedersen B. Prevalence and risk factors for poor nutritional status among children in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012;9(10):3506-18.
  16. Menezes RCEd, Lira PICd, Leal VS, Oliveira JS, Santana SCdS, Sequeira LAdS, et al. Determinants of stunting in children under five in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. Rev Saude Publica. 2011;45(6):1079-87.
  17. Smith LC, Haddad LJ. Explaining child malnutrition in developing countries: A cross-country analysis: Intl Food Policy Res Inst; 2000.
  18. Frost MB, Forste R, Haas DW. Maternal education and child nutritional status in Bolivia: finding the links. Social science & medicine. 2005;60(2):395-407.
  19. Glewwe P. Why does mother's schooling raise child health in developing countries? Evidence from Morocco. J Hum Resour. 1999:124-59.
  20. Christiaensen L, Alderman H. Child Malnutrition in Ethiopia: Can Maternal Knowledge Augment the Role of Income?*. Econ Dev Cult Change. 2004;52(2):287-312.
  21. Mukherjee R, Chaturvedi S, Bhalwar R. Determinants of nutritional status of school children. Med J Armed Forces India. 2008;64(3):227-31.
  22. Limwattananon S, Tangcharoensathien V, Prakongsai P. Equity in maternal and child health in Thailand. Bull World Health Organ. 2010;88(6):420-7.
  23. Hien NN, Hoa NN. Nutritional status and determinants of malnutrition in children under three years of age in Nghean, Vietnam. Pak J Nutr. 2009;8(7):958-64.
  24. Nasution D. Hubungan Berat Badan Lahir Rendah (BBLR) Dengan Kejadian Stunting Pada Anak Usia 6-24 Bulan Di Kota Yogyakarta. Jogjakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada; 2014.
  25. Adair LS. Growth of Filipino infants who differ in body proportions at birth. Am J Hum Biol. 1989;1(6):673-82.
  26. Christian P. Prenatal origins of undernutrition. 2009.
  27. Garcia M, Alderman H, Sathar ZA. Patterns and Determinants of Malnutrition in Children in Pakistan: Impact of Community Health [with Comments]. The Pakistan Development Review. 1989:891-902.
  28. Aerts D, Drachler MdL, Giugliani ERJ. Determinants of growth retardation in Southern Brazil. Cad Saude Publica. 2004;20(5):1182-90.
  29. Hong R, Mishra V. Effect of wealth inequality on chronic under-nutrition in Cambodian children. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition. 2006:89-99.
  30. Finlay JE, Özaltin E, Canning D. The association of maternal age with infant mortality, child anthropometric failure, diarrhoea and anaemia for first births: evidence from 55 low-and middle-income countries. BMJ open. 2011;1(2):e000226.
  31. Ramli, Agho K, Inder K, Bowe S, Jacobs J, Dibley M. Prevalence and risk factors for stunting and severe stunting among under-fives in North Maluku province of Indonesia. BMC Pediatr. 2009;9(1):64.
  32. Nadiyah N, Briawan D, Martianto D. Faktor Risiko Stunting Pada Anak Usia 0—23 Bulan di Provinsi Bali, Jawa Barat dan Nusa Tenggara Timur. Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan. 2014;9(2).
  33. Khan REA, Raza MA. Child malnutrition in developing economies: a case study of Bangladesh. Quality & Quantity. 2014;48(3):1389-408.
  34. Hernandez-Diaz S, Peterson K, Dixit S, Hernandez B, Parra S, Barquera S, et al. Association of maternal short stature with stunting in Mexican children: common genes vs common environment. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1999;53(12):938-45.
  35. Schmidt MK, Muslimatun S, West CE, Schultink W, Gross R, Hautvast JG. Nutritional status and linear growth of Indonesian infants in West Java are determined more by prenatal environment than by postnatal factors. J Nutr. 2002;132(8):2202-7.
  36. Özaltin E, Hill K, Subramanian S. Association of maternal stature with offspring mortality, underweight, and stunting in low-to middle-income countries. Jama. 2010;303(15):1507-16.
  37. Kramer MS. Determinants of low birth weight: methodological assessment and meta-analysis. Bull World Health Organ. 1987;65(5):663.
  38. Bisai S, Mahalanabis D, Sen A, Bose K, Datta N. Maternal early second trimester pregnancy weight in relation to birth outcome among Bengalee Hindus of Kolkata, India. Ann Hum Biol. 2007;34(1):91-101.
  39. Binkin NJ, Yip R, Fleshood L, Trowbridge FL. Birth weight and childhood growth. Pediatrics. 1988;82(6):828-34.
  40. Gayle HD, Dibley MJ, Marks JS, Trowbridge FL. Malnutrition in the first two years of life: the contribution of low birth weight to population estimates in the United States. Am J Dis Child. 1987;141(5):531-4.
  41. WHO. Low birth weight: a tabulation of available information. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1992.
  42. Falkner F, Holzgreve W, Schloo R. Prenatal influences on postnatal growth: overview and pointers for needed research. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1994;48(1):15-24.
  43. Black RE, Allen LH, Bhutta ZA, Caulfield LE, De Onis M, Ezzati M, et al. Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. The lancet. 2008;371(9608):243-60.
  44. Kramer MS, Olivier M, McLean FH, Willis DM, Usher RH. Impact of intrauterine growth retardation and body proportionality on fetal and neonatal outcome. Pediatrics. 1990;86(5):707-13.
  45. Lawn JE, Lee AC, Kinney M, Sibley L, Carlo WA, Paul VK, et al. Two million intrapartum-related stillbirths and neonatal deaths: where, why, and what can be done? Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009;107:S5-S19.
  46. Omole-Ohonsi A, Ashimi A. Obstructed labour–a six year review in Aminu Kano teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. Nigerian medical practitioner. 2007;51(4):59-63.
  47. Lee AC, Darmstadt GL, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Shrestha SR, Christian P. Maternal-fetal disproportion and birth asphyxia in rural Sarlahi, Nepal. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009;163(7):616-23.
  48. Lawn JE, Cousens S, Zupan J, Team LNSS. 4 million neonatal deaths: when? Where? Why? The Lancet. 2005;365(9462):891-900.
  49. WHO. The World health report: 2005: make every mother and child count: overview. 2005.

line-height:150%;font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;mso-fareast-font-family:





Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1388 | views : 5612


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat ISSN 0215-1936 (PRINT), ISSN: 2614-8412 (ONLINE).

Indexed by:

Analytics Visitor Counter