Renal Histopathology, Blood Urea Nitrogen and Creatinine Levels of Rats With Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction



Dinar Arifianto(1*), Dhirgo Adji(2), Bambang Sutrisno(3), Nofan Rickiawan(4)

(1) Department of Clinical Pathology Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Department of Surgery and Radiology Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Universitas
(3) Gadjah Mada 3Department of Pathology Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Universitas Gadjah Mada
(4) Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Universitas Brawijaya
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Ureteral obstruction is an urinary tract disorder that can occur in animals and human. The effect of total unilateral ureteral obstruction on the kidneys is fatal if not immediately treated because it can cause ipsilateral or contralateral kidney damage. This study was conducted to determine renal  histopathological features, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels in white rats that had unilateral ureteral obstruction. Thirty-six 2,5 months female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups. Group I (control) was operated laparotomy. Group II was operated by ligating the right ureter in the proximal part. Group III was operated by ligating the right ureter in the distal part. One week after ligation three rats were taken randomly from each group and their blood was taken for BUN and creatinine analysis. The right and left kidneys were taken to make histopathological preparations. The same treatment was carried out at 2nd , 3rd , and 4th weeks after surgery. Statistical analysis showed an increase in BUN and creatinine. Macroscopically, ipsilateral renal hydronephrosis occurs from the first week after unilateral ureteral ligation, which is characterized by renal pelvic dilatation, parenchymal depletion, vacuolization and fluid deposits in the right kidney. The ipsilateral renal histopathology examination showed glomerular atrophy and tubular dilatation in the first week after ligation. Cysts formation and interstitial fibrosis occurred on the 2nd  to 4th week of the ipsilateral kidney and geting worse along with the length of obstruction time. Compensatory reaction occurred in the contralateral kidney was found with dilatation of tubulus distal and proximal from the first week after ligation. This study showed that unilateral ureteral ligation in the proximal and distal regions causes an increase in BUN and creatinine and hydronephrosis of the ipsilateral kidney which appears macroscopically and histopathologically. Ipsilateral renal hydronephrosis occurs from the first week after unilateral ureteral ligation, which is characterized by pelvic renal dilatation, parenchymal depletion, vacuoles formation, and fluid deposits in the kidneys. Histopathologically, ipsilateral renal damage characterized by glomerular atrophy, inflammatory response, vacuolization, and fibrosis. Contralateral compensatory response characterized by dilatation of the tubulus convulatus and collecting ducts.

Keyword: ureteral obstruction, kidney, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, histopathology


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