Diversity on the exterior performance of crossbred cattle kept by farmers in Central Java

T.S.M Widi(1*)

(1) Animal Production Systems Group, Department of Animal Science, Wageningen University, The Netherlands
(*) Corresponding Author


In Java, starting in the 1980’s, exotic germplasms have been used to increase the productivity of Ongole Grade cattle, which is considered as native cattle. However, due to uncontrolled breeding system and poor pedigree record by the farmers, nowadays, many different types of cattle exist in Indonesia. This study was aimed to investigate the diversity on the exterior performance and body size of crossbred cattle. This study was carried out in Central Java and Yogyakarta Provinces. In total 160 heads of female Simmental crossbred female cattle, with age more than 2 years were observed for their exterior performances. Survey and direct measurement on the exterior performances of cattle were applied to collect all parameters required. The results indicated that most predominant body colour was brown-red (59.38 %), followed by red and white (14.38% and 11.88%), respectively. The colour of the head were mostly white (72.50%), some were brown (17.50%). The noses were varied from black (53.75 %) and pink (41.25 %). Most of the cattle have small and medium dewlap (46.25 % and 43.13% respectively). The shape of horns are mostly curved inward (35.00 %) and slightly upward (32.50%). The cattle are mostly humpless (72.50%) and few of them have small hump (25%). The colour of tails’ hair is varied from brown (66%) and black (48%). The colour of the vulva was mostly pink (55.00%) and blackish pink (23.13%). The heterogeneity of Simmental crossbred cattle is caused by unplanned crossbreeding systems, yet, their genotypes are not well indentified. There is a need to plan an appropriate crossbreeding program.


diversity, crossbred cattle, exterior performance, uncontrolled breeding system

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