Siti Mazayyanah(1*)

(*) Corresponding Author


Background. Chronic complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) include microangiopathy and macroangiopathy. Microangiopathy includes retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, while macroangiopathy includes coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral arterial disease. When the diagnosis is established in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM), approximately 25% had suffered nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. Within one to three years of non-proliferative retinopathy progresses to proliferative diabetic retinopathy can eventually be leading to retinal detachment, glaucoma and blindness. Diabetic nephropathy occurs in 2040% of patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and is a high risk of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Endothelial dysfunction underlies all of this. Markers of endothelial dysfunction endothelin1 are assessed in patients with type 2 diabetes with retinopathy or nephropathy and without retinopathy and nephropathy.

Aim of the study. The aim of the study is to show the differences between the level of Endothelin-1 on    female patients Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus with retinopathy or nephropathy compared to those without retinopathy and nephropathy.

Method and subjects.  This study uses a cross sectional design which was conducted on subjects from outpatient type 2 diabetes mellitus women with retinopathy or nephropathy compared without retinopathy and nephropathy at endocrinology clinic, Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta. ELISA sandwich’s method was used to measure plasma levels of endothelin1 from veins blood. Differences between groups were compared by student’s unpaired ttest and MannWhitney test (significant when p<0.05). Diabetic retinopathy is enforced through inspection fundoscopy. Diabetic nephropathy is diagnosed by albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥ 30ug/mg.

Result. The results showed that there were 52 female subjects with type 2 DM is composed of them 26 (50%) subjects with retinopathy or nephropathy and 26 (50%) subjects without retinopathy and nephropathy. Median age was 54 (4459) years. The mean level(s) of endothelin1 obtained (was higher) in women with type2 diabetes mellitus with retinopathy or nephropathy (was) 19,47 ± 9,94 ng / ml (and) (compared) with no retinopathy and nephropathy (was) 17,64 ± 11,63 ng / ml (with) (although the difference was not statistically significant) p = 0,944.

Conclusion. (Endothelin1 levels were higher in women with type2 diabetes mellitus with retinopathy or nephropathy than without retinopathy and nephropathy, but the difference was not statistically significant.) No significant difference in endothelin-1 level between type 2 diabetic female patients with and without microangiopathy complications).


Key words: endothelin1, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, type 2 diabetes mellitus.



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