Kontribusi Genomika dalam Penemuan Gen Toleran Salinitas pada Tanaman Padi

https://doi.org/10.22146/veg.54889

Bagus Herwibawa(1*), Florentina Kusmiyati(2)

(1) Laboratorium Fisiologi dan Pemuliaan Tanaman, Fakultas Peternakan dan Pertanian, Universitas Diponegoro
(2) Laboratorium Fisiologi dan Pemuliaan Tanaman, Fakultas Peternakan dan Pertanian, Universitas Diponegoro
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Kendala abiotik seperti salinitas, merupakan tantangan utama yang menjadi pembatas produktivitas tanaman padi. Sifat toleran salinitas sangat kompleks dan melibatkan banyak gen. Oleh sebab itu sangat sulit menyimpulkan bagaimana tanaman padi merespon cekaman salinitas. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan kontribusi genomika dalam penemuan gen toleran salinitas tanaman padi. Saat ini, genomika telah berkontribusi dalam penemuan gen toleran salinitas tanaman padi, khususnya melalui genomika komparatif dan kajian asosiasi lintas genom. Pengembangan pangkalan data genom juga bermanfaat untuk mengidentifikasi famili gen yang berkaitan dengan toleransi salinitas antar spesies berdasarkan homologi dan sintaksis. Gen-gen toleran salinitas yang ditemukan dapat dimanfaatkan melalui silang balik berbantuan penanda, seleksi berbantuan penanda, dan seleksi genomik, namun hingga saat ini gen-gen tersebut belum secara optimal dimanfaatkan. Penggunaan teknik baru, seperti rekayasa genetika dan pengeditan genom juga menjadi metode baru dan cepat untuk menghasilkan tanaman padi toleran salinitas. Meskipun demikian, kedua pendekatan tersebut juga belum banyak memanfaatkan gen-gen toleran salinitas yang telah ditemukan. Tren penelitian pangkalan data berbasis web diperkirakan akan terus meningkat karena murah, relatif mudah, dan mampu menghasilkan data prediktif. Pangkalan data yang akan terus berkembang, tentu harus dapat dimanfaatkan oleh peneliti dan pemulia tanaman di Indonesia.


Keywords


Cekaman abiotik, identifikasi gen, kajian asosiasi lintas genom, pengurutan genom lengkap, perbaikan tanaman padi

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/veg.54889

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