Kajian Senyawa Metabolit Sekunder pada Mentimun (Cucumis sativus L.)

https://doi.org/10.22146/veg.60886

Wiwit Yuni Astuti(1), Dyah Weny Respatie(2*)

(1) Departemen Budidaya Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Departemen Budidaya Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Senyawa metabolit sekunder merupakan produk yang terbentuk dari proses metabolisme secara insidental dan umumnya tidak terlalu berpengaruh penting terhadap kehidupan organisme. Mentimun mengandung senyawa metabolit sekunder diantaranya alkaloid, glikosida, steroid, saponin, tannin, flavonoid, terpenoid, resin, polifenol, fenol, glikosida sianogenik, dan antosianin. Kandungan senyawa metabolit sekunder pada mentimun dipengaruhi oleh faktor internal (genetik dan fisiologis) dan lingkungan (suhu, salinitas, kekeringan, radiasi sinar UV). Senyawa metabolit sekunder pada mentimun berperan penting bagi kehidupan tanaman atau untuk kesehatan manusia. Senyawa metabolit sekunder pada mentimun berperan sebagai antraktan serta pertahanan tanaman terhadap herbivora, hama, dan patogen. Senyawa metabolit sekunder pada mentimun dalam dunia medis dapat mencegah berbagai macam penyakit seperti peradangan, infeksi bakteri, kanker, demam, diabetes, maupun gangguan pencernaan. Kandungan senyawa metabolit sekunder dapat ditentukan melalui analisis kualitatif (uji warna) dan kuantitatif (kromatografi dan spektrometri). Secara kuantitatif, kandungan senyawa metabolit sekunder harus melalui proses pemisahan melalui kromatografi (paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, gas liquid chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography) dan diidentifikasi menggunakan detektor (spektrofotometer UV-vis, spektrofotometer IR, NMR spectroscopy, dan mass spectroscopy). Rasa pahit pada mentimun dapat diatasi dengan menggunakan varietas yang menghasilkan buah tidak pahit, menjaga suhu dan kelembaban tanah dengan menentukan periode tanam yang tepat disesuaikan data suhu bulanan, pengairan teratur, serta penggunaan mulsa organik

Keywords


mentimun; metabolit sekunder; identifikasi senyawa

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/veg.60886

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