Pengaruh Variasi Ukuran Bulbil terhadap Viabilitas dan Pertumbuhan Vegetatif Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) pada Tanah Masam

https://doi.org/10.22146/veg.81016

Muhammad Ulinuhayani(1*), Bambang Singgih(2), Setia Permana Nurhidayat(3), Nurul Rusdi(4), Budi Triono(5)

(1) Pusat Riset Tanaman Pangan, Organisasi Riset Pertanian dan Pangan, BRIN
(2) Pusat Riset Tanaman Pangan, Organisasi Riset Pertanian dan Pangan, BRIN
(3) Pusat Riset Tanaman Pangan, Organisasi Riset Pertanian dan Pangan, BRIN
(4) Pusat Riset Tanaman Pangan, Organisasi Riset Pertanian dan Pangan, BRIN
(5) Pusat Riset Tanaman Pangan, Organisasi Riset Pertanian dan Pangan, BRIN
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) merupakan tanaman umbi-umbian yang berpotensi untuk memenuhi kebutuhan komoditas pangan. Jenis ini tumbuh optimal pada tanah humus berpasir dengan pH normal dan kaya akan unsur hara. Sementara, masalah utama kondisi sebagian besar tanah di Indonesia merupakan tanah masam yang kering dan miskin unsur hara. Bibit yang berasal dari umbi bulbil secara ekonomi dianggap menguntungkan karena lebih murah, efisien dan praktis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui viabilitas dan pertumbuhan vegetatif porang dengan berbagai ukuran bulbil yang ditanam pada tanah masam yang telah diberi kapur. Rancangan percobaan menggunakan Rancangan Kelompok Teracak Lengkap (RKTL) dengan 3 ulangan. Perlakuan yang divariasikan adalah bulbil dengan diameter kecil 0,6 - 1,5 cm (1 gr), diameter sedang 1,6 - 2,5 cm (4 gr), dan diameter besar 2,6 - 3,5 cm (10 gr). Media semai berupa tanah yang diambil di sekitar lokasi penelitian dicampur dengan kapur dengan perbandingan tanah: kapur (1:10). Parameter yang diukur adalah viabilitas, pertumbuhan tinggi batang, dan diameter batang. Perhitungan viabilitas dilakukan pada 4 minggu setelah semai sedangkan tinggi dan diameter batang dilakukan pada 9 minggu setelah semai. Variasi ukuran bulbil tidak berpengaruh terhadap viabilitas tanaman porang, namun bulbil dengan ukuran besar cenderung memiliki viabilitas lebih tinggi mencapai nilai 100%. Perlakuan variasi ukuran bulbil berpengaruh nyata terhadap tinggi dan diameter batang (p<0,05). Umbi besar menghasilkan diameter tinggi dan lebar paling optimal yaitu tanaman kedua memiliki tinggi 62,27 cm dan lebar 1,6 cm sedangkan umbi kecil menghasilkan batang terendah yaitu tinggi 9,2 cm dengan lebar 0,27 cm dengan diameter.

Keywords


Amorphophallus muelleri; bulbil; nutrisi; tinggi batang.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/veg.81016

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