The Impacts of Flood and Drought on Food Security in Central Java

Endita Prima Ari Pratiwi(1*), Eka Laily Ramadhani(2), Fatchan Nurrochmad(3), Djoko Legono(4)

(1) Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering, Rice husk biochar application, Water Saving Irrigation, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(4) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author


To achieve food security, water must be available at the right place, at the right time, in the right quantity, and be of the right quality. Water-related disasters will negatively affect agricultural areas and crop production, which can threaten food security. Nevertheless, flood and drought strike Central Java, one of the rice production centres in Indonesia, every year, and climate change has been worsening the condition because extreme events occur more frequently. This study reviews the impacts of flood and drought on paddy fields in Central Java from 2014 to 2018. A set of historical documents, including reports on flood and drought, rainfall records, and rice production, were collected from government institutions. Quantitative analysis was conducted using statistics and geographic information system tools. The results showed that the 2014 flood event reflected badly on 94,306 hectares (ha) paddy fields. Four severely affected regencies were Pati (25,460 ha), Demak (13,560 ha), Jepara (13,281 ha), and Kudus (12,203 ha). Meanwhile, drought in 2015 affected 82,324 ha paddy field. The areas severely damaged by drought were Blora (12,335 ha), Cilacap (11,503 ha), Grobogan (10,514 ha), and Pemalang (10,134 ha). Pearson’s correlation analysis results indicated that the correlation between annual rainfall and drought impact (r = −0.865, p = 0.058) is more significant than that between annual rainfall and drought impact (r = 0.794, p = 0.108). The stakeholders have adopted some strategies to minimise losses, such as establishing a 1,000 small water reservoirs program, preparing temporary pump irrigation, and providing agricultural insurance. Nevertheless, more efforts are still necessary to fight against food insecurity.


Water-food security nexus; Water-related disaster; Climate change; Disaster mapping.

Full Text:



Devereux, S., 2007. The impact of droughts and floods on food security and policy options to alleviate negative effects. Agricultural Economics, 37(S1), pp.47–58.

Enenkel, M., See, L., Bonifacio, R., Boken, V., Chaney, N., Vinck, P., You, L., Dutra, E. and Anderson, M., 2015. Drought and food security - Improving decision-support via new technologies and innovative collaboration. Global Food Security, [online] 4, pp.51–55. Available at: <>.

Estiningtyas, W., Boer, R. and Buono, A., 2009. Analisis Hubungan Hujan Dengan Kejadian Banjir dan Kekeringan pada Wilayah dengan Sistim Usaha Tani Berbasis Padi di Provinsi Jawa Barat. Jurnal Agromet, 23(39870423), pp.946–952.

FAO, 2015. The Impact of Natural Hazards and Disasters on Agriculture and Food Security and Nutrition: A Call for Action to Build Resilient Livelihoods. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 1996. Rome Declaration on World Food Security and World Food Summit Plan of Action. World Food Summit 13–17 November 1996. Rome.

Guo, J., Mao, K., Zhao, Y., Lu, Z. and Xiaoping, L., 2019. Impact of climate on food security in mainland China: A new perspective based on characteristics of major agricultural natural disasters and grain loss. Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(3), pp.1–25.

Indonesia Disaster Data Information, 2019. Disaster Spatial Distribution by Provinces. [online] The National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB). Available at: <> [Accessed 19 Sep. 2019].

Kang, Y., Khan, S. and Ma, X., 2009. Climate change impacts on crop yield, crop water productivity and food security - A review. Progress in Natural Science, [online] 19(12), pp.1665–1674. Available at: <>.

Lesk, C., Rowhani, P. and Ramankutty, N., 2016. Influence of extreme weather disasters on global crop production. Nature, [online] 529(7584), pp.84–87. Available at: <>.

Lolemtum, J.T., Mugavalai, E.M. and Obiri, J.A., 2017. Impact of drought on food security in West Pokot County, Kenya. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publication, 7(6), pp.742–750.

Maarif, S., 2011. Meningkatkan kapasitas masyarakat dalam mengatasi risiko bencana kekeringan (Enhancing people’s capacity for drought risk mitigation). Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi Indonesia, 13(2), pp.65–73.

Marfai, M.A., King, L., Singh, L.P., Mardiatno, D., Sartohadi, J., Hadmoko, D.S. and Dewi, A., 2008. Natural hazards in Central Java Province, Indonesia: An overview. Environmental Geology, 56(2), pp.335–351.

Ministry of Agriculture Republic Indonesia, 2015. Statistics of Climate, Crop Pest and Climate Change Impact 2012 – 2015. Center for Agricultural Data and Information System, Secretariate General - Ministry of Agriculture.

Ministry of Agriculture Republic Indonesia, 2018a. Statistics of Agricultural Land 2013–2017. Center for Agricultural Data and Information System, Secretariate General - Ministry of Agriculture.

Ministry of Agriculture Republic Indonesia, 2018b. Statistics of Climate, Crop Pest and Climate Change Impact 2016–2018. Center for Agricultural Data and Information System, Secretariate General - Ministry of Agriculture.

Ministry of Agriculture Republic Indonesia, 2019. Data of Food Crops Sub-sector 2014–2018.

Office of Agriculture and Plantation, 2016. Statistical Data of Crops in Central Java 2015. Office of Agriculture and Plantation Central Java.

Pacetti, T., Caporali, E. and Rulli, M.C., 2017. Floods and food security: A method to estimate the effect of inundation on crops availability. Advances in Water Resources, [online] 110, pp.494–504. Available at: <>.

Sumastuti, E. and Pradono, N.S., 2016. Dampak perubahan iklim pada tanaman padi di Jawa Tengah (The Impact of Climate Change on Rice Crops in Central Java). Journal of Economic Education, 5(1), pp.31–38.

Valizadeh, J., Ziaei, S.M. and Mazloumzadeh, S.M., 2014. Assessing climate change impacts on wheat production (a case study). Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, [online] 13(2), pp.107–115. Available at: <>.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2790 | views : 2329


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s)

The content of this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
ISSN 5249-5925 (online) | ISSN 2581-1037 (print)
Jl. Grafika No.2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281
Email :
Web Analytics JCEF Stats