The Effects of Using Ground Cockle Seashells as an Additive for Mortar in Peat Environment

https://doi.org/10.22146/jcef.55651

Monita Olivia(1*), Ismi Siska Rahmayani(2), Gunawan Wibisono(3), Edy Saputra(4)

(1) Department of Civil Engineering, Universitas Riau, INDONESIA
(2) Department of Civil Engineering, Universitas Riau, INDONESIA
(3) Department of Civil Engineering, Universitas Riau, INDONESIA
(4) Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Riau, Pekanbaru, INDONESIA
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Seashells are available abundantly in coastal areas and have the potential to be used as aggregates and replacement for cement in mortar and concrete. They are also applied as mineral additives for mortar or concrete to increase the resistance of these materials in an aggressive environment, especially in constructing structures such as drainage and sewer networks which require good resistance to organic acid attack. This paper discusses the potential addition of ground seashells to improve the performance of mortar used as a drainage lining in an acidic environment such as peatland. The mix was designed using a 4% ground cockle shell (Anadara granosa) by cement weight as an additive in two mixes which include Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and OPC Cockle Shell (OPCCS). The samples were cured in a water pond for 28 days before they were placed in water and peat water for 120 days after which the compressive strength, porosity, sorptivity, change in weight, and visual characteristics were investigated. The results showed the compressive strength of OPCCS mortar increased by 11.29% after immersion in peat water for 120 days with its porosity and sorptivity decreased by 5.78% and 31.07% due to the refinement of the pores and capillary network in the mortar. Moreover, the weight of the brushed and unbrushed OPCCS mortar in peat water was lesser compared to the OPC due to the increase in CaO content which has the ability to fill the pores and reduce disintegration. The visual examination showed an improvement in the pH of OPCCS mortar due to the ability of the ground cockle shells to neutralize the acidity of the peat water. This study, therefore, shows the use of ground cockle shells as an additive makes it possible to use mortar as a drainage lining because the shells provide excellent resistance to acidic peat environments.

Keywords


Acidic Environment; Additive; Cockle Shells; Mortar; Peatland

Full Text:

PDF


References

ASTM C267-06, 2006. Standard test method for chemical resistance of mortars, grouts, and monolithic surfacings and polymer concretes. West Conshohocken: ASTM International.

ASTM C642-06, 2006. Standard test method for density, absorption, and voids in hardened concrete. West Conshohocken: ASTM International.

Beddoe, R.E., & Dorner, H.W., 2005. Modelling acid attack on concrete: Part I. The essential mechanisms. Cement and Concrete Research 35, pp. 2333-2339.

Bhatty, J., & Taylor, P., 2006. Sulfate resistance of concrete using blended cements or supplementary cementitious materials. No. PCA R&D Serial No. 2961a. Illinois: Portland Cement Association.

Chiou, L.J., Chen, C.H., & Li, Y.H., 2014. Using oyster-shell foamed bricks to neutralize the acidity of recycled rainwater. Construction and Building Materials, 64, pp. 480-487.

DGCF, 2010. Capture Fisheries Statistics of Indonesia 2009. Jakarta: Directorate of Capture Fisheries Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries.

Eo, S., & Yi, S., 2015. Effect of oyster shell as an aggregate replacement on the characteristics of concrete. Magazine of Concrete Research, 67(15), pp. 833-842.

Ferraz, E., Gamelas, J.A.F., Coroado, J., Monteiro, C., & Rocha, F., 2018. Recycling waste seashells to produce calcitic lime: characterization and wet slaking reactivity. Waste and Biomass Valorisation, 10, pp. 2937-2414.

Gleize, P.J.P, Motta, E.V., Silva, D.A., & Roman, H.R., 2009. Characterization of historical mortars from Santa Catarina (Brazil). Cement and Concrete Composites, 31(5), pp. 342-346.

Goyal, S., Kumar, M., Sidhu, D.S., & Bhattacharjee, B., 2009. Resistance of mineral admixture concrete to acid attack. Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 7(2), pp. 273-283.

Islam, Kh. N., Bakar, Md. Z. B.A., Noordin, M.M., Hussein, M.Z.B., Rahman, N.S.B.A., & Ali, Md. E., 2011. Characterisation of calcium carbonate and its polymorphs from cockle shells (Anadara granosa). Powder Technology, 213 (1-3), pp. 188191.

Kamba, A.S., Ismail, M., Ibrahim, T.A.T., & Zakaria, Z.A.B., 2013. Synthesis and characterisation of calcium carbonate aragonite nanocrystals from cockle shell powder (Anadara granosa). Journal of Nanomaterials, 2013, pp. 398357.

Kartika, S., & Mu, Y., 2014. A study on Indonesian mollusk fishery and its prospect for economy. International Journal of Marine Science, 4(5), pp. 61-66.

Koenig, A., Herrmann, A., Overmann, S., & Dehn, F., 2017. Resistance of alkali-activated binders to organic acid attack: Assessment of evaluation criteria and damage mechanisms. Construction and Building Materials, 151, pp. 405-413.

Lertwattanaruk, P., Makul, N., & Siripattarapravat, C., 2012. Utilization of ground waste seashells in cement mortars for masonry and plastering. Journal of Environmental Management, 111, pp. 133-141.

Makhloufi, Z., Bederina, M., Bouchicha, M., & Kadri, E-H., 2014. Effect of mineral admixtures on resistance to sulfuric acid solution of mortars with quaternary binders. Physics Procedia, 55, pp. 329-335.

Marinowitz, C., Neuwald-Burg, C., & Pfeifer, M., 2012. Historic documents in understanding and evaluation of historic lime mortars. In: Valek, J., Groot, C.J.W.P., & Hughes, J.J., (eds.) Historic Mortars: Characterisation, Assessment, and Repair. Heidelberg: Springer Dordrecht.

Martinez-Garcia, C., Gonzalez-Fonteboa, B., Martinez-Abella, F., & Carro-Lopez, D., 2017. Performance of mussel shell as aggregate in plain concrete. Experimental investigation of Peruvian scallop used as fine aggregate in concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 139, pp. 570583.

Martinez-Garcia, C., Gonzalez-Fonteboa, B., Carro-Lopez, D., & Martinez-Abella, F., 2020. Effect of mussel shell aggregates on hygric behaviour of air lime mortar at different ages. Construction and Building Materials, 252, pp. 119113.

Naqi, A., Siddique, S., Kim, H-K., & Jang, J.G., 2020. Examining the potential of calcined oyster shell waste as additive in high volume slag cement. Construction and Building Materials, 230, pp. 116973.

Nguyen, D.H., Boutouil, M., Sebaibi, N., Baraud, F., & Leleyter, L., 2017. Durability of pervious concrete using crushed seashells. Construction and Building Materials, 135, pp. 137-150.

O’Connell, McNally, C., & Richardson, M.G., 2012. Performance of concrete incorporating GGBS in aggressive wastewater environments. Construction and Building Materials, 27(1), pp. 368-374.

Olivia, M., Hutapea, U.A., Sitompul, I.R., Darmayanti, L., Kamaldi, A., & Djauhari, Z., 2014. Resistance of plain and blended cements exposed sulfuric acid solution and acidic peat water: a preliminary study. Proceedings of The 6th International Conference of Asian Concrete Federation, Seoul, Korea.

Olivia, M., Mifshella, A.A., & Darmayanti, L., 2015. Mechanical properties of seashell concrete. Procedia Engineering, 125, pp. 760-764.

Olivia, M., Pradana, T., & Sitompul, I.R., 2017. Properties of plain and blended cement concrete immersed in acidic peat water canal. Procedia Engineering, 171, pp. 557-563.

Olivia, M., Wibisono, G., & Saputra, E., 2019. Early strength of various fly ash based concrete in peat environment. Matec Web of Conferences, 276, pp. 01022.

Othman, N.H., Bakar, B.H.A., Don, M.M., & Johari, M.A.M., 2013. Cockle shell ash replacement for cement and filler in concrete. Malaysian Journal of Civil Engineering, 25(2), pp. 201-211.

Oueslati, O., & Duchesne, J., 2012. The effect of SCMs and curing time on resistance of mortars subjected to organic acids. Cement and Concrete Research, 42(1): 205-214.

Paris, J.M., Roessler, J.G., Ferraro, C.C., DeFord, H.D., & Townsend, T.G., 2016. A review of waste products utilized as supplements to Portland cement in concrete. Journal of Cleaner Production, 121, pp. 1-18.

Peek, A.M., Nguyen, N., & Wong, T., 2007. Durability planning and compliance testing of concrete in construction projects. Corrosion Control 007, Australia Corrosion Association, Sydney, Australia.

Ponnada, M.R., Prasad, S.S., Dharmal, H., 2016. Compressive strength of concrete with partial replacement of aggregates with granite powder and cockle shell. Malaysian Journal of Civil Engineering, 28(2), pp. 183-204.

Prusty, J.K., & Patro, S.K., 2015. Properties of fresh and hardened concrete using agrowaste as partial replacement of coarse aggregate-a review. Construction and Building Materials, 82, pp. 101113.

Richardson, A.E., & Fuller, T., 2013. Sea shells used as partial aggregate replacement in concrete. Structural Survey, 31(5), pp. 347-354.

Ritung, S., Wahyunto, & Nugroho, K., 2012. Karakteristik dan sebaran lahan gambut di Sumatera, Kalimantan dan Papua. In: Husen, E., Anda, M., Noor, M., Mamat, H.S., Fahmi, A., & Sulaiman, Y., (eds) Pengelolaan Lahan Gambut Berkelanjutan. Bogor: Balai Besar Litbang SDLP.

Salain, I.M.A.K., 2009. Karakteristik Semen Portland. Jurnal Teknologi dan Kejuruan, 32(1), pp. 63-70.

Seo, J.H., Park, S.M., Yang, B.J., & Jang, J.G., 2019. Calcined oyster shell powder as an expensive additive in cement mortar. Materials, 12, pp. 1322. SNI 6882:2014, 2014. Spesifikasi mortar untuk pekerjaan unit pasangan. Jakarta: Badan Standardisasi Nasional.

SNI 03-6825-2002, 2002. Metode pengujian kekuatan tekan mortar semen portland untuk pekerjaan sipil. Jakarta: Badan Standardisasi Nasional.

Sophia, M., & Sakthieswaran, N., 2019. Waste shell powders as valuable bio-filler in gypsum plaster- efficient waste management technique by effective utilization. Journal of Cleaner Production, 220, pp. 74-86.

Tayeh, B.A., Hasaniyah, M.W., Zeyad, A.M., Awad, M.M., Alaskar, A., Mohamed, A.M., & Alyousef, R., 2020. Durability and mechanical properties of seashell partially-replaced cement. Journal of Building Engineering, 31, pp. 101328.

Varhen, C., Carillo, S., & Ruiz, G., 2017. Experimental investigation of Peruvian scallop used as fine aggregate in concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 136, pp. 533-540.

Wang, J., Liu, E., & Li, L., 2019. Characterization on the recycling of waste seashells with Portland cement towards sustainable cementitious materials. Journal of Cleaner Production, 220, pp. 235-252.

Wang, J., & Liu, E., 2020. Recycling waste seashells with cement: Rheology and early-age properties of Portland cement paste. Resources, Conservation & Recycling, 155, 104680.

Zivica, V., 2006. Deterioration of cement-based materials due to the action of organic compound. Construction and Building Materials, 20(9), pp. 634-641.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jcef.55651

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2176 | views : 2334

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s)


The content of this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
ISSN 5249-5925 (online) | ISSN 2581-1037 (print)
Jl. Grafika No.2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281
Email : jcef.ft@ugm.ac.id
Web Analytics JCEF Stats