The Utilization of Soybean as a Catalyst Material in Enzyme-Mediated Calcite Precipitation (EMCP) for Crack Healing Concrete

Regina Aprilia Zulfikar(1), Heriansyah Putra(2*), Hideaki Yasuhara(3)

(1) IPB University
(2) IPB University
(3) Ehime University
(*) Corresponding Author


The effect of using soybean as a catalyst in the Enzyme-Mediated Calcite Precipitation (EMCP) method of crack healing concrete is discussed in this research. The existence of cracks in concrete reduces its quality, therefore, there is the need for repair efforts and one of these is through injection using the EMCP method. This technique employs the plant-derived urease enzyme to catalyze the reaction between calcium chloride (CaCl2) and urea (CH4N2O) towards precipitating calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Its effectiveness was, however, evaluated using a test tube experiment, and the optimum combination of urease, urea, and calcium chloride was selected and used as the preliminary data for the soybean added as a catalyst. Meanwhile, the concrete samples were prepared in the form of 5 cm x 10 cm cylindrical concrete and the crack was made through Universal Testing Machine (UTM) with a controlled area observed to be in the range of ± 0.2-0.3 mm. The injection solution was added to the concrete using the percolation method up to the period the height of the solution was 5 mm above the concrete surface and this was conducted several times with the effect on the concrete cracks evaluated through permeability tests which were used as one of the concrete quality parameters. Moreover, the permeability coefficient value was found to be inversely proportional to the quality and this means a smaller value of the coefficient produced better concrete quality and vice versa. The results showed the total calcite formed in the sample after the 4th injection was 18.3% of the total surface area of the concrete crack and was able to reduce the concrete permeability value by 95.43%. This, therefore, means the use of soybean in the EMCP method is considered feasible to repair concrete cracks.


Crack healing; EMCP; Grouting; Permeability; Soybean.

Full Text:



Achal, V., Mukherjee, A., Reddy, M.S. 2011a. Effect of calcifying bacteria on permeation properties of concrete structures. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. 38(1), pp. 1229-1234.

Achal, V., Mukherjee, A., Reddy, M.S. 2011b. Microbial concrete: Way to enhance the durability of building structures. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. 23(6), pp. 730-734.

Baiq, H.S., Yasuhara, H., Kinoshita, N., Putra, H., & Johan, E. 2020. Examination of calcite precipitation using plant-derived urease enzyme for soil improvement. International Journal of GEOMATE. 19 (72), pp. 231-237.

Badan Standardisasi Nasional. 2002. Tata Cara Pembuatan Rencana Campuran Beton Normal. SNI-03-2834-2002. Jakarta : Badan Standardisasi Nasional.

Bungey, J.H. & Grantham, M.G. 2006. Testing of Concrete in Structures,

Chen, H.J., Peng, C.F., Tang, C.W., & Chen, Y.T. 2019. Self-healing concrete by biological substrate. Materials. 12(24), pp. 4099.

DeJong, J.T., Mortensen, B.M., Martinez, B.C., & Nelson, D.C. 2010. Bio-mediated soil improvement. Ecological Engineering. 36(2), pp. 197-210.

Sugiharto, H., Surya, A., Wibowo, K., & Tjong, W.F. 2004. Rancang Bangun Alat Uji Permeabilitas Beton. Civil Engineering Dimension. 6(2), pp. 94-100.

Junianto, A., Ramadhan, R.M., & Utari, J.P. Menggunakan Metode Pressure Grouting dengan Material Polyurethane dan Epoxy ( Studi Kasus : Ruas Jalan Patriot – Perintis Kemerdekaan Kota Pekalongan ). Wahana TEKNIK SIPIL. 24(1), pp. 19-32.

Sudipta, I.K., & Sudarsana, K. 2009. Permeabilitas Beton dengan Penambahan Styrofoam. Jurnal Ilmiah Teknik Sipil. 13(2), pp. 192-198.

Khaliq W. & Ehsan, M.B. 2016. Crack healing in concrete using various bio influenced self-healing techniques. Construction and Building Materials. 102(1), pp. 349-357.

Kulkarni, P.B., Nemade, P.D., & Wagh MP. 2020. Healing of Generated Cracks in Cement Mortar Using MICP. Civil Engineering Journal. 6(4), pp. 679-692.

Neupane, D., Yasuhara, H., Kinoshita, N., & Ando, Y. 2015. Distribution of mineralized carbonate and its quantification method in enzyme mediated calcite precipitation technique. Soils and Foundations. 55(2), pp. 447-457.

Neupane, D., Yasuhara, H., Putra, H., & Kinoshita, N. 2018. Inorganically Precipitated Phosphates and Carbonates to Improve Porous Material Properties. EPI International Journal of Engineering. 1(1), pp. 1-6.

Putra, H., Yasuhara, H., Kinoshita, N., Neupane, D., & Lu, C.W. 2016. Effect of magnesium as substitute material in enzyme-mediated calcite precipitation for soil-improvement technique. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology. 4(37), pp. 1–8.

Putra, H., Yasuhara, H., & Kinoshita, N. 2017. Optimum condition for the application of enzyme-mediated calcite precipitation technique as soil improvement method. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology.7(6), pp. 2145-2151.

Saboury, A.A & Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A. 1997. A simple novel method for determination of an inhibition constant by isothermal titration microcalorimetry. The effect of fluoride ion on urease. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition. 12(4), pp. 273-279.

Schlangen, E. & Sangadji, S. 2013. Addressing Infrastructure Durability and Sustainability by Self Healing Mechanisms - Recent advances in self healing concrete and asphalt. In Procedia Engineering. (54), pp. 39-57.

Herlambang, F.S., & Setyono, Y.E,. Analisis Injeksi Epoxy pada Perbaikan Retak Beton Terhadap Beban Lentur. 2018. Wahana Teknik Sipil. 23(2), pp.47-55.

Tziviloglou E, Wiktor V, Jonkers HM, & Schlangen E. 2016. Bacteria-based self-healing concrete to increase liquid tightness of cracks. Construction and Building Materials. 122(1), pp. 118-125.

Van Tittelboom, K., De Belie, N., De Muynck, W., & Verstraete, W. 2010. Use of bacteria to repair cracks in concrete. Cement and Concrete Research. 40(1), pp. 157-166.

Van Tittelboom, K. & De Belie, N. 2013. Self-healing in cementitious materials-a review. Materials. 6(1), pp. 2182-2217.

Wijaya, R.A. & Saputra, A. 2017. Repairing and Retrofitting of Earthquake-Affected Exterior Beam-Column Connection by Using Resin Concrete. Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum.2(2):63-74.

Wiktor, V. & Jonkers, HM. 2011. Quantification of crack-healing in novel bacteria-based self-healing concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites, pp. 763–770.

Yasuhara, H, Hayashi, K, & Okamura, M. 2011. Evolution in mechanical and hydraulic properties of calcite-cemented sand mediated by biocatalyst. In Geotechnical Special Publication. 52 (3), pp. 539–549.

Zhang, J.L., Wu, R.S., Li, Y.M., Zhong, J.Y., Deng, X, Liu, B., Han, N.X., & Xing, F. 2016. Screening of bacteria for self-healing of concrete cracks and optimization of the microbial calcium precipitation process. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 100(1), pp. 6661-6670.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 818 | views : 651


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum

The content of this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
ISSN 5249-5925 (online) | ISSN 2581-1037 (print)
Jl. Grafika No.2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281
Email :
Web Analytics JCEF Stats