Physical Modelling of Earthquake-induced Liquefaction on Uniform Soil Deposit and Earth Structures Settlement

https://doi.org/10.22146/jcef.59467

Avantio Pramaditya(1), Teuku Faisal Fathani(2*)

(1) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada Centre of Excellence for Disaster Mitigation and Technological Innovation GAMA-InaTEK, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Geo-technical Engineering, Landslide monitoring and Early Warning System, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Earthquake-induced liquefaction has been a complex and challenging topic in the field of geotechnical engineering due to its ability to cause catastrophic damage to the surrounding area. The manifestation of earthquake-induced liquefaction as observed from the effect of its past occurrence is damages on the ground and structures such as buildings, earth structures, and important lifelines structures. Liquefaction is caused by the loss of strength and stiffness of the cohesionless saturated soils due to the rapid dynamic loads from the earthquake. However, its complexity and uncertainty make the problems as one of the challenging problems in geotechnical engineering. One of the method to analyse the phenomena is through Physical modelling. Model subjected to the geotechnical centrifuge is required to analyse and observed the earthquake-induced liquefaction phenomena and this study aimed to understand the liquefaction phenomena, mechanism, and consequences through physical modelling by centrifuge and laboratory tests. This involved the physical modelling of the embankment which lies on a liquefiable foundation ground and subjection to earthquake motion of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake retrieved from K-Net Mito stations. Moreover, geotechnical centrifuge test with 50 g of centrifugal acceleration was conducted to create the conditions of the actual field and the behaviour of the model related to acceleration, pore pressure, and displacement was observed using sensors. The liquefaction manifestation was observed in the model with the occurrence of lateral spreading, remnants of the sand boils, and deformation of the embankment. Furthermore, excess pore water pressure was rapidly developed and the pore pressure ratio (ru) higher than 1 was found to have indicated the occurrence of liquefaction while the embankment settle was estimated at 0.43 m.

Keywords


Excess Pore Water Pressure; Geotechnical Centrifuge Test; Liquefaction; Physical Modelling; Settlement.

Full Text:

PDF


References

Adalier, K., Elgamal, A.W. and Martin, G.R., 1998. Foundation liquefaction countermeasures for earth embankments. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 124(6), pp.500–517.

Adamidis, O. and Madabhushi, S.P.G., 2018. Experimental investigation of drainage during earthquake-induced liquefaction. Geotechnique, 68(8), pp.655–665.

Cubrinovski, M., 2011. Seismic Effective Stress Analysis : Modelling and Application. In: 5th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering. Santiago, Chile.

Cubrinovski, M., Green, R.A., Allen, J., Ashford, S., Bowman, E., Brendon, Bradley, Cox, B., Hutchinson, T., Kavazanjian, E., Orense, R., Pender, M., Quigley, M. and Wotherspoon, L., 2010. Geotechnical reconnaissance of the 2010 Darfield (Canterbury) earthquake. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 43(4), pp.243–320.

Cubrinovski, M., Henderson, D. and Bradley, B., 2012. Liquefaction Impacts in Residential Areas in the 2010-2011 Christchurch Earthquakes. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Engineering Lessons Learned from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, pp.811–824.

Day, R., 2002. Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Handbook. McGraw-Hill.

Elgamal, A., Parra, E., Yang, Z. and Adalier, K., 2002. Numerical analysis of embankment foundation liquefaction countermeasures. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 6(4), pp.447–471.

Elgamal, A., Zeghal, M., Taboada, V. and Dobry, R., 1996. Analysis of Site Liquefaction and Lateral Spreading Using Centrifuge Testing Records. Soils and Foundations, 36(2), pp.111–121.

Gopal Madabhushi, S.P., 2007. Ground improvement methods for liquefaction remediation. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Ground Improvement, 11(4), pp.195–206.

Grantz, A., Plafker, G. and Kachadoorian, R., 1964. Alaska’s Good Friday earthquake, March 27, 1964: A Preliminary Geologic Evaluation. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, pp.1–35.

Green, R.A., Allen, J., Wotherspoon, L., Cubrinovski, M., Bradley, B., Bradshaw, A., Cox, B. and Algie, T., 2011. Performance of Levees (Stopbanks) during the 4 september 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield and 22 February 2011 Mw 6.2 Christchurch, New Zealand, Earthquakes. Seismological Research Letters, 82(6), pp.939–949.

Hazirbaba, K. and Rathje, E., 2004. A Comparison Between in Situ and Laboratory Measurements of Pore Water Pressure Generation. (1220).

Hushmand, B., Scott, R.F. and Crouse, C.B., 1988. Centrifuge liquefaction tests in a laminar box. Géotechnique, 38(2), pp.253–262.

Idriss, I.M. and Boulanger, R.W., 2008. Soil Liquefaction During Earthquakes. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. Oakland, CA: Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

Ishihara, K., 1985. Stability of Natural Deposits During Earthquakes. Proceedings of The Eleventh International Conference On Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, San Francisco, 12-16 August 1985.

Kishida, H., 1966. Damage to Reinforced Concrete Buildings in Niigata City with Special Reference to Foundation Engineering. Soils and Foundations, 6(1), pp.71–88.

Kitagawa, Y. and Hiraishi, H., 2004. Overview of the 1995 Hyogo-Ken Nanbu Earthquake and Proposals for Earthquake Mitigation Measures. Journal of JAEEJournal of Japan Association for Earthquake Engineering, 4(3), pp.1–29.

Kiyota, T., Furuichi, H., Hidayat, R.F., Tada, N. and Nawir, H., 2020. Overview of long-distance flow-slide caused by the 2018 Sulawesi earthquake, Indonesia. Soils and Foundations, 60(3), pp.722–735.

Koseki, J., Yoshida, T. and Sato, T., 2005. Liquefaction Properties of Toyoura Sand in Cyclic Tortional Shear Tests Under Low Confining Stress. Soils and Foundations, 45(5), pp.103–113.

Kramer, S.L., 1996. Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. Prentice-Hall International.

Kutter, B.L., Carey, T.J., Stone, N., Bonab, M.H., Manzari, M.T., Zeghal, M., Escoffier, S., Haigh, S.K., Madabhushi, G.S.P., Hung, W., Kim, D.-S., Kim, N.R., Okamura, M., Tobita, T., Ueda, K. and Zhou, Y.-G., 2020a. LEAP-UCD-2017 V. 1.01 Model Specifications. In: Model Tests and Numerical Simulations of Liquefaction and Lateral Spreading. Cham: Springer International Publishing.pp.3–29.

Kutter, B.L., Carey, T.J., Stone, N., Zheng, B.L., Gavras, A., Manzari, M.T., Zeghal, M., Abdoun, T., Korre, E., Escoffier, S., Haigh, S.K., Madabhushi, G.S.P., Madabhushi, S.S.C., Hung, W.-Y., Liao, T.-W., Kim, D.-S., Kim, S.-N., Ha, J.-G., Kim, N.R., Okamura, M., Sjafruddin, A.N., Tobita, T., Ueda, K., Vargas, R., Zhou, Y.-G. and Liu, K., 2020b. LEAP-UCD-2017 Comparison of Centrifuge Test Results. In: B.L. Kutter, M.T. Manzari and M. Zeghal, eds. Model Tests and Numerical Simulations of Liquefaction and Lateral Spreading. Cham: Springer International Publishing.pp.69–103.

Maharjan, M. and Takahashi, A., 2014. Liquefaction-induced deformation of earthen embankments on non-homogeneous soil deposits under sequential ground motions. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 66, pp.113–124.

Manzari, M.T., Ghoraiby, M. El, Kutter, B.L., Zeghal, M., Abdoun, T., Arduino, P., Armstrong, R.J., Beaty, M., Carey, T., Chen, Y., Ghofrani, A., Gutierrez, D., Goswami, N., Haigh, S.K., Hung, W.Y., Iai, S., Kokkali, P., Lee, C.J., Madabhushi, S.P.G., Mejia, L., Sharp, M., Tobita, T., Ueda, K., Zhou, Y. and Ziotopoulou, K., 2018. Liquefaction experiment and analysis projects (LEAP): Summary of observations from the planning phase. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 113(May 2017), pp.714–743.

Manzari, M.T., Kutter, B.L., Zeghal, M., Iai, S., Tobita, T., Madabhushi, S.P.G., Haigh, S.K., Mejia, L., Gutierrez, D.A., Armstrong, R.J., Sharp, M.K., Chen, Y.M. and Zhou, Y.G., 2015. LEAP projects: Concept and challenges. Geotechnics for Catastrophic Flooding Events - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering for Disaster Mitigation and Rehabilation, GEDMAR 2014, pp.109–116.

Ng, C.W.W., 2014. The state-of-the-art centrifuge modelling of geotechnical problems at HKUST. Journal of Zhejiang University: Science A, 15(1), pp.1–21.

Oka, F., Tsai, P., Kimoto, S. and Kato, R., 2012. Damage patterns of river embankments due to the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake and a numerical modeling of the deformation of river embankments with a clayey subsoil layer. Soils and Foundations, 52(5), pp.890–909.

Rapti, I., Lopez-Caballero, F., Modaressi-Farahmand-Razavi, A., Foucault, A. and Voldoire, F., 2018. Liquefaction analysis and damage evaluation of embankment-type structures. Acta Geotechnica, 13(5), pp.1041–1059.

Sasaki, Y., Towhata, I., Miyamoto, K., Shirato, M., Narita, A., Sasaki, T. and Sako, S., 2012. Reconnaissance report on damage in and around river levees caused by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. Soils and Foundations, 52(5), pp.1016–1032.

Schofield, A.N., 1981. Dynamic and Earthquake Geotechnical Centrifuge Modelling. Proc. of Int. Conf. on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, pp.1081–1100.

Scott, R.F. and Zuckerman, K.A., 1972. Sandblows and Liquefaction. The Great Alaska Earthquake Of 1964-EngineeringPublication 1606, pp.179–189.

Sharp, M.K., Dobry, R. and Abdoun, T., 2003. Liquefaction centrifuge modeling of sands of different permeability. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 129(12), pp.1083–1091.

Suzuki, W., Aoi, S., Kunugi, T., Kubo, H., Morikawa, N., Nakamura, H., Kimura, T. and Fujiwara, H., 2017. Strong motions observed by K-NET and KiK-net during the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence and its impact on earthquake science and hazard assessment Manabu Hashimoto, Martha Savage, Takuya Nishimura and Haruo Horikawa 4. . Earth, Planets and Space, 69(1).

Tabaroei, A., Abrishami, S. and Hosseininia, E.S., 2017. Comparison between two different pluviation setups of sand specimens. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 29(10), pp.1–11.

Takada, N., Nishi, M. and Fukuda, M., 1996. Damage to River Levees and Revetments. Soils and Foundations, 36(Special), pp.241–254.

Tatsuoka, F., Ochi, K., Fujii, S. and Okamoto, M., 1986. Cyclic undrained triaxial and torsional shear strength of sands for different sample preparation methods. Soils and Foundations, 26(3), pp.23–41.

Towhata, I., 2008. Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. Springer Series in Geomechanics and Geoengineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Towhata, I., Goto, S., Taguchi, Y. and Aoyama, S., 2013. Liquefaction Consequences and Learned Lessons During the 2011 Mw = 9 Gigantic Earthquake. Indian Geotechnical Journal, 43(2), pp.116–126.

Towhata, I., Maruyama, S., Kasuda, K., Koseki, J. and Wakamatsu, K., 2014. Liquefaction in the Kanto region during the 2011 off the paci fi c coast of Tohoku earthquake. Soils and Foundations, 54(4), pp.859–873.

Yamada, S., Orense, R.P. and Cubrinovski, M., 2011. Earthquake News Geotechnical Damage due to the 2011 Christchurch, New Zealand. ISSMGE Bulletin, 5(2), pp.27–45.

Yegian, M.K., Ghahraman, V.G. and Harutiunyan, R.N., 1994. Liquefaction and Embankment Failure Case Histories, 1988 Armenia Earthquake. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 120(3), pp.581–596.

Youd, T.L., 1995. Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Ground Displacement. Proceedings: Third International Conference on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Engineering and Soil Dynamics 2-7 April 1995, St. Loius, Missouri, pp.911--.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jcef.59467

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 628 | views : 454

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum


The content of this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
ISSN 5249-5925 (online) | ISSN 2581-1037 (print)
Jl. Grafika No.2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281
Email : jcef.ft@ugm.ac.id
Web Analytics JCEF Stats