Asupan gizi dan status gizi vegetarian pada komunitas vegetarian di Yogyakarta

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijcn.22986

Lusia Anggraini(1*), Wiryatun Lestariana(2), Susetyowati Susetyowati(3)

(1) Indonesia Vegetarian Society
(2) Departemen Biokimia, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Departemen Gizi Kesehatan, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Background: Vegetarian diet has become a popular diet among people. The information about the benefits of going plant-based as opposed to the risks of degenerative illnesses is widespread and publicly eligible. However, the diet is known to cause the lack of some nutrients such as protein, iron, and B12, which has the implication on one's nutritional status.

Objective: The study is aimed at identifying nutrient intake and nutritional status vegetarians and the influential factors among vegetarians in Yogyakarta.

Method: The study is an observational one with a cross sectional design. It is conducted on vegetarians living in Yogyakarta, which, as methodologically required, involves 102 respondents. The nutritional intake is measured through Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), and the nutritional status through the Body Mass Index status, ferritin serum level, protein serum level and hemoglobin level. The data are analysed using chi square and multiple logistic regression.

Results: The mean intake of energy, fat, zinc, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 is higher in lactoovo vegetarian while vegan is the higher intake of carbohydrates, protein, iron, folic acid, and vitamin C. Some nutritional intake of less than 80% of AKG is the intake of energy, carbohydrates, zinc, folic acid, and vitamin B12. There are significant differences of the intakes of vitamin B12 between both groups. The vegan’s IMT is lower than lactoovo vegetarian. Lactoovo vegetarian’s protein serum levels are higher, however serum levels of vegan’s ferritin and hemoglobin are higher. There are significant differences in serum levels of protein and hemoglobin levels in both groups. There is a significant relation between the intake of iron and hemoglobin levels in vegetarians.

Conclusion: Lactoovo vegetarian diet and vegan diet can fulfill the nutritional adequacy, but the things that need to keep in mind are the quality and quantity of food and a good diet plan in order to comply all the nutritional adequacy especially food sources of zinc, folic acid, and vitamin B12.


Keywords


body mass index; ferritin; hemoglobin; nutrient intake; protein serum; vegetarian

Full Text:

PDF


References

  1. Sabate J. The contribution of vegetarian diets to health and disease: a paradigm shift. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:502S-7S.
  2. Dewell A, Weidner G, Sumner MD, Chi CS, Ornish D. A very low fa vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors. J Am Diet Assoc 2008 Feb;108(2):347-56.
  3. Abdulla M, Andersson I, Asp NG, Berthelsen K, Birkhed D, Ockerman PA, et al. Nutrient intake and health status of vegans: chemical analyses of diets using the duplicate portion sampling technique. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34(11):2464-77.
  4. Haddad EH, Berk LS, Kettering JD, Hubbard RW, Peters WR. Dietary intake and biochemical,hematologic,and immune status of vegans compared with nonvegetarians. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70(3 Suppl):586S-93S.
  5. Ball MJ, Bartlett MA. Dietary intake and iron status of australian vegetarian women.  Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70(3):353-8.
  6. Rosell M, Appleby P, Spencer E, Key T. Weight gain over 5 years in 21. 966 meat-eating, fish-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men and women in EPIC-Oxford. Int J Obes (Lond) 2006;30(9):1389-96.
  7. Toohey ML, Harris MA, DeWitt W, Foster G, Schmidt WD, Melby CL. Cardiovascular disease risk factors are lower in african-american vegans compared to lacto-ovo –vegetarian. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17(5):425-34.
  8. Linder MC. Biokimia nutrisi dan metabolisme. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia Press; 2006.
  9. DeBruyne LK, Pinna K, Whitney E. Nutrition and diet therapy. Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth; 2008.
  10. Baynes RD, Stipanuk MH. Iron. In : Stipanuk, M.H. ed. Biochemical and physiological aspects of human nutrition. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2000.
  11. Gilsing AM, Crowe FL, Lloyd-Wright Z, Sanders TA, Appleby PN, Key TJ, et al. Serum concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate in British male omnivores, vegetarians and vegans: results from a cross-setional analysis of the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2010;64(9):933-9.
  12. Susianto. Peran formula tempe sebagai sumber vitamin B12 dan implementasinya untuk diet vegetarian [Disertasi]. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia; 2011.
  13. Dallma PR. Iron. In: Brown ML. ed. Present knowledge in nutrition. 6th ed. Washington: International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Press; 1990.
  14. Widarini NP. Asupan zat gizi dan kejadian anemia pada remeja putri vegetarian di Kabupaten Badung Propinsi Bali [Tesis]. Fakultas Kedokteran: Universitas Gadjah Mada; 2008.
  15. Hillman RS, Ault KA, Rinder HM. Iron deficiency anemia. In: Hillman RS, Ault KA, Rinder HM, ed. Hematology ini clinical practice. New York: McGraw Hill; 2005.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijcn.22986

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 5488 | views : 58152

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2015 Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia (JGKI) Indexed by:
 
 Google Scholar 

  free
web stats View My Stats