Local Wisdom in Smart City Development Policy: Case Study of Makassar’s Sombere Smart City


Muh Alfian(1*), Subando Agus Margono(2)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author


The city of Makassar is an example of smart city development practice and considered successful in emerging with a new policy innovation. The city was able to build a smart city not only based on information technology (IT) but also involves a local wisdom called “sombere”. The value of sombere in the life of the people of Makassar is a manifestation of the attitudes and behaviors that includes friendliness, kindness, and care. This study examines how the application of sombere local wisdom in supporting smart city-based policy in Makassar. This study uses qualitative methods with case study designs. Data collection is carried out through interviews, observations, and documentation, and were analyzed using an interactive model. The results showed that the value of friendliness, kindness, and care in sombere is the key to a successful implementation of smart city policies. Sombere could maintain the policy so that it remained sustainable and easily accepted by the people of Makassar. Local wisdom significantly has a positive effect on each service and program created. However, in some of the programs, local wisdom is difficult and even too forced to combine with the smart city program. The dimensions that are well supported by local wisdom are found in the dimensions of smart governance, smart living, and smart society. Meanwhile, the dimensions of the smart environment and smart economy are difficult to combine local values with the use of technology. Moreover, the value of local wisdom seems to be just a slogan in smart branding. 



smart city; local wisdom; indigenous cultures; policy innovation; development policy

Full Text:



Adisasmita, S. A., Pallu, M. S., & Ramli, M. I. (2022). Investigating Local Resources and Wisdom in Partner Regions Surrounding the Nation’s Capital for Road Network Development. Civil Engineering Journal, 8(5), 926–937.

Affandy, S. (2017). Penanaman Nilai-Nilai Kearifan Lokal dalam Meningkatkan Perilaku Keberagamaan Peserta Didik. Atthulab: Islamic Religion Teaching and Learning Journal, 2(2), 201–225.

Ahmad, J. (2015). Metode penelitian administrasi publik teori dan aplikasi.

Alim, S., Nisa, A. K., & Hair, A. (2019). New Public Service In Bandung Through The Concept Of Smart City. Journal of Politics and Policy, 95–108.

Almaarif, A., & Wargadinata, E. L. (2022). Adopting Open Government in Local Development Planning: A Study on Bekasi Regency. JKAP (Jurnal Kebijakan Dan Administrasi Publik), 26(1), 18–32.

Amri, A. (2016). Analisis pemanfaatan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi dalam menunjang terwujudnya Makassar sebagai “smart city.” KAREBA: Jurnal Ilmu Komunikasi, 431–445.

Anindra, F., Supangkat, S. H., & Kosala, R. R. (2018). Smart governance as smart city critical success factor (case in 15 cities in Indonesia). 2018 International Conference on ICT for Smart Society (ICISS), 1–6.

Arief, A., Abbas, M. Y., Wahab, I. H. A., Latif, L. A., Abdullah, S. D., & Sensuse, D. I. (2020). The smart islands vision: Towards smart city readiness in local government of Archipelagos. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1569(4), 042006.

Arwanto, A., & Anggraini, W. (2022). Good Governance, International Organization and Policy Transfer: A Case of Indonesian Bureaucratic Reform Policy. JKAP (Jurnal Kebijakan Dan Administrasi Publik), 26(1), 33–46.

Asnawi, M. A. (2021). Synergy of tourism services based on local wisdom in south sulawesi.

Aurigi, A. (2022). Smart cities, metaverses, and the relevance of place.

Aziz, M. A., & Djunaedi, A. (2022). Tahapan Perkembangan Kota Makassar menuju Smart City Tahun 2015-2020. Jurnal Sinar Manajemen, 9(2), 255–271.

Caragliu, A., del Bo, C., & Nijkamp, P. (2011). Smart cities in Europe. Journal of Urban Technology, 18(2), 65–82.

Chen, Y., & Long, M. (2021). Development and Risk of Smart City. The 2020 International Conference on Machine Learning and Big Data Analytics for IoT Security and Privacy: SPIoT-2020, Volume 1, 290–294.

Chourabi, H., Nam, T., Walker, S., Gil-Garcia, J. R., Mellouli, S., Nahon, K., Pardo, T. A., & Scholl, H. J. (2012). Understanding smart cities: An integrative framework. 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2289–2297.

Cohen, B. (2011). Basic Smart city Indicators: Smart city Wheel. https://www.smart-circle.org/smartcity/blog/boyd-cohen-the-smart-citywheel/

Cohen, B. (2012). The top 10 smart cities on the planet. Fast Company, 11.

Covell, C. (2016). A City Built on Information Technology and Wisdom: The Roles of the Government in the Establishment of the Smart Cities, Smart Communities. Smart Communities (December 29, 2016).

Covell, C. (2017). A Sustainable Fiscal Budget Design for Smart City Development a City Built on Technology and Wisdom. Available at SSRN 3068528.

Cowley, R., & Caprotti, F. (2019). Smart city as anti-planning in the UK. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 37(3), 428–448.

Creswell, J. W. (2015). Penelitian kualitatif & desain riset. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Creswell, J. W. (2016). Research design: pendekatan metode kualitatif, kuantitatif, dan campuran. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 5.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

Dameri, R. P. (2013). Searching for smart city definition: a comprehensive proposal. International Journal of Computers & Technology, 11(5), 2544–2551.

Effendi, D., Syukri, F., Subiyanto, A. F., & Utdityasan, R. N. (2016). Smart city Nusantara development through the application of Penta Helix model (A practical study to develop smart city based on local wisdom). 2016 International Conference on ICT for Smart Society (ICISS), 80–85.

Firmansyah, H. S., & Supangkat, S. H. (2022). Smart World Living Lab: A Living Lab Approach to Improve Smart City Implementation (Introducing the DDG areas as an integrated Living Lab). 2022 IEEE International Smart Cities Conference (ISC2), 1–6.

Fitrianf, F. K., Serano, V. A., laode Imelda, C., Albert, M., Edoardus, E. M., Hubertus, O., & Hesty, T. (2018). Smart City Concept Of Merauke Regency In Provinding Information Public Service Considering Of Local Wisdoms. E3S Web of Conferences, 73, 08014.

Ghofur, A., & Ismanto, K. (2022). Contribution of Local Wisdom as a Halal Tourism Attraction: Case Study of Pekalongan City Central Java Indonesia. International Journal of Islamic Business and Economics (IJIBEC), 6(1), 52–62.

Ghony, M. D., & Almanshur, F. (2012). Metodologi penelitian kualitatif. Jogjakarta: Ar-Ruzz Media, 61, 177–181.

Giffinger, R., & Gudrun, H. (2010). Smart cities ranking: an effective instrument for the positioning of the cities? ACE: Architecture, City and Environment, 4(12), 7–26.

Giffinger, R., & Pichler-Milanović, N. (2007). Smart cities: Ranking of European medium-sized cities. Centre of Regional Science, Vienna University of Technology.

Haerani, E., Maemunah, E., Hamid, N., Muslim, G. O., Muslim, D., & Matsumoto, M. (2019). Geohazard Mitigation Based on Local Wisdom for Limestone Mining Site in Padalarang Area of West Java. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1363(1), 012028.

Hamzah, B., & Syarif, E. (2020). Greenway model as a support of Makassar smart city. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 473(1), 012121.

Hardi, R., & Gohwong, S. (2020). E-government based urban governance on the smart city program in makassar, Indonesia. Journal of Contemporary Governance and Public Policy, 1(1), 12–17.

Harlina, S., & Mustafa, M. S. (2018). Teknologi Informasi dalam Smart City di Makassar. Konferensi Nasional Sistem Informasi (KNSI) 2018.

Harsiti, H., Munandar, T. A., Malik, A., & Setyawan, A. (2020). A service application prototype of citizen portal apps (C-PORT) for improving local government public services. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 830(3), 032019.

Hasan, G. (2021). Effect of Develop Strategy, Ethical Climate, on Quality Service to Customer Experience With Local Wisdom as a Moderating Variable.


Johannes, F. B., Liliweri, A., Gana, F., & Nursalam, N. (2022). Critical Factors for Women’s Representation in Top Management Leadership Positions in Local Government. JKAP (Jurnal Kebijakan Dan Administrasi Publik), 26(2), 144–161.

Jusman, S. A., Ahmad, B., & Allorante, A. I. (2018). ELECTRONIC GOVERNANCE MODEL IN PUBLIC SERVICE: A STUDY CASE OF INVESTMENT AND INTEGRATED ONE-STOP SERVICE OFFICE IN MAKASSAR CITY. European Journal of Research and Reflection in Management Sciences Vol, 6(4).

Kencono, D. S., & Iqbal, M. (2021). Do Cultural Values Affect the Implementation of Smart Living Policy in Yogyakarta City? 4th International Conference on Sustainable Innovation 2020–Social, Humanity, and Education (ICoSIHESS 2020), 35–41.

Khusniati, M. (2014). Model pembelajaran sains berbasis kearifan lokal dalam menumbuhkan karakter konservasi. Indonesian Journal of Conservation, 3(1).

Kurniawan, N. A. (2020). Resilience Thinking with Local Wisdom in Disruptive Era. 6th International Conference on Social and Political Sciences (ICOSAPS 2020), 627–631.

Kurniawati, W., Suwandono, D., & Islamey, T. Z. (2019a). Local Wisdom in Malay Kampung Semarang as Representatives of Smart Environment. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 396(1), 012004.

Kusumastuti, R. D., & Rouli, J. (2021). Smart city implementation and citizen engagement in Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 940(1), 012076.

Latkovikj, M. T., & Popovska, M. B. (2019). Online research about online research: advantages and disadvantages. E-Methodology, 6(6), 44–56.

Madani, M., & Nasrulhaq, M. (2017). Concept of smart city governance in Makassar City. International Conference on Administrative Science (ICAS 2017), 154–156.

Mahesa, R., Yudoko, G., & Anggoro, Y. (2019a). Dataset on the sustainable smart city development in Indonesia. Data in Brief, 25, 104098.

Manguluang, A. P. (2016). Persiapan Kota Makassar sebagai Smart City. Program Studi Ilmu Politik Fakultas Ilmu Sosial Dan Ilmu Politik Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar.

Manville, C., Cochrane, G., Cave, J., Millard, J., Pederson, J. K., Thaarup, R. K., Liebe, A., Wissner, M., Massink, R., & Kotterink, B. (2014). Mapping smart cities in the EU European Parliament’s Committee on Industry. Research and Energy.

Martinus, M. (2020). ASEAN Smart Cities network: A catalyst for partnerships.

Miles, M. B, Huberman, A. M., and Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook. Sage Publications.

Mozūriūnaitė, S., & Sabaitytė, J. (2021). To what extent we do understand smart cities and characteristics influencing city smartness. Journal of Architecture and Urbanism, 45, 1–8.

Mukhlis, I., Suwanan, A. F., Hidayati, B., Roudhotus, S., & Rizaludin, M. S. (2021). Can the Implementation of Smart City Promote Inclusive Development of a Local Economy? XV International Conference" Russian Regions in the Focus of Changes"(ICRRFC 2020), 73–81.

Munandar, T., Harsiti, H., Malik, A., Satriawan, K., & Afandi, A. (2018). A Literature Study: The Concept of Smart City between Municipal vs. Regency (Between Efficiency, Habitability, and Local Wisdom). The 1st International Conference on Computer Science and Engineering Technology Universitas Muria Kudus.

Myeong, S., Jung, Y., & Lee, E. (2018). A study on determinant factors in smart city development: An analytic hierarchy process analysis. Sustainability, 10(8), 2606.

MZ, S. P. H. S., & Marzuki, M. (2019). Smart City Pada Pengembangan Pariwisata Kawasan Kota Tua Ampenan Berbasis Kearifan Lokal. Jurnal Rekayasa Teknologi Informasi (JURTI), 3(2), 165–171.

Nam, T., & Pardo, T. A. (2011). Smart city as urban innovation: Focusing on management, policy, and context. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance, 185–194.

Nasrullah, N. (2017). Implementasi Electronic Government Dalam Mewujudkan Good Governance dan Smart City (Studi Kasus: Pemerintah Kota Makassar). E-JURNAL JUSITI: Jurnal Sistem Informasi Dan Teknologi Informasi, 6(2), 23–31.

Nilma, H. (2018). Analisis cause effect mengenai dampak dari implementasi Bandung smart city. Faktor Exacta, 11(1), 57.

Nurdiassa, A., Zulfikar, A., Rasyid, F., & Wulandari, A. T. (2021). Implementasi Kebijakan Smart City dalam Mewujudkan Makassar Kota Dunia. Journal of Public Administration and Government, 3(1), 37–46.

Paskaleva, K., Evans, J., Martin, C., Linjordet, T., Yang, D., & Karvonen, A. (2017). Data governance in the sustainable smart city. Informatics, 4(4), 41.

Permana, I., Hidayat, M. T., & Siswoyo, M. (2022). The Implementation of a Local Wisdom-Based Smart City System in Cirebon. Hong Kong Journal of Social Sciences.

Pradana, I Putu Yoga Bumi, Ely Susanto, and Wahyudi Kumorotomo. 2022. “Bibliometric Analysis of Public Sector Innovation.” Jurnal Ilmu Sosial Dan Ilmu Politik 25 (3): 297–315. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.22146/jsp.69862.

Pradana, I. P. Y. B., Susanto, E., & Kumorotomo, W. (2022). Analyzing the critical factors for innovation sustainability in the public sector: evidence from Indonesia. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 35(7), 733–748. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPSM-02-2022-0044

Pradana, I Putu Yoga Bumi, Wahyudi Kumorotomo, and Ely Susanto. 2023. “The Institutionalization of Public Innovation: Evidence from Indonesia.” Administration & Society, 1–26. https://doi.org/DOI: 10.1177/00953997231151438.

Purnaya, I. G. K., Laba, I. N., & Semara, I. M. T. (2019). PACKAGING LOCAL WISDOM-BASED RIVER TOUR. International Journal of Applied Sciences in Tourism and Events, 3(2), 109–209.

Reza, M. F. (2017). Representasi Pesan Identitas Makassar dalam City Branding I Love MC Sombere and Smart City (Analisis Semiotika). Skripsi.

Rudwiarti, L. A., Pudianti, A., Emanuel, A. W. R., Vitasurya, V. R., & Hadi, P. (2021). Smart tourism village, opportunity, and challenge in the disruptive era. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 780(1), 012018.

Rulinawaty, R., Darojat, O., & Sudrajat, A. (n.d.). Collective Organizational Engagement to Enhance Organizational Performance: Case of Indonesia Office Services. JKAP (Jurnal Kebijakan Dan Administrasi Publik), 26(2), 127–143.

Saptadi, N. T. S., Chyan, P., & Pratama, A. C. (2020). Geographic Information System for Waste Management for the Development of Smart City Governance. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 854(1), 012040.

Saptadi, N. T. S., Sampe, F., & Chyan, P. (2018). Analisis Terhadap Persepsi Masyarakat Makassar Dalam Upaya Untuk Mewujudkan Tata Kelola Smart City. E-JURNAL JUSITI: Jurnal Sistem Informasi Dan Teknologi Informasi, 7(1), 34–42.

Sari, I., Nurmandi, A., Muallidin, I., & Loilatu, M. J. (2022). Implementation of War Room in Improving the Quality of Security Services in Makassar City, Indonesia. Proceedings of Seventh International Congress on Information and Communication Technology: ICICT 2022, London, Volume 4, 389–397.

Savira, E. M., & Tasrin, K. (2018). Involvement of local wisdom as a value and an instrument for internalization of public service innovation. BISNIS & BIROKRASI: Jurnal Ilmu Administrasi Dan Organisasi, 24(1), 1.

Schaffers, H. (2010). Smart Cities and the Future Internet: Towards Collaboration Models for Open and User Driven Innovation Ecosystems, FIA Ghent,“Smart Cities and Future Internet Experimentation”, December 16th 2010. Lazaroiu, George Cristian and Roscia, Mariacristina. 2012. Definition methodology for the smart cities model. Elsevier Ltd.

Shah, M. N., Nagargoje, S., & Shah, C. (2017). Assessment of Ahmedabad (India) and Shanghai (China) on smart city parameters applying the Boyd Cohen smart city wheel. Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Advancement of Construction Management and Real Estate, 111–127.

Silvi, R. (2018). Analisis Cluster dengan Data Outlier Menggunakan Centroid Linkage dan K-Means Clustering untuk Pengelompokkan Indikator HIV/AIDS di Indonesia. J. Mat.“Mantik, 4(1), 22–31.

Suardi, W., Purwaningsih, T., Malik, I., & Taufik, A. (2022). Home Care Dottoro’ta As a Development Program Smart City in Makassar City, Indonesia. Journal of Government and Civil Society, 6(2).

Sugiyono, D. (2010). Metode penelitian kuantitatif dan R&D. Bandung: Alfabeta, 26–33.

Sugiyono, P. (2015). Metode penelitian kombinasi (mixed methods). Bandung: Alfabeta, 28, 1–12.

Supangkat, S. H., Arman, A. A., Nugraha, R. A., & Fatimah, Y. A. (2018). The implementation of Garuda Smart City framework for Smart City readiness mapping in Indonesia. Journal of Asia-Pacific Studies, 32, 169–176.

Sutresno, S. A., & Singgalen, Y. A. (2023). Analysis and Design of Morotai Tourism Village Information System (SIDEWITA) Based on Local Wisdom of Tokuwela and Babari Tradition. Journal of Information Systems and Informatics, 5(1), 174–185.

Sutriadi, R. (2018). Defining smart city, smart region, smart village, and technopolis as an innovative concept in indonesia’s urban and regional development themes to reach sustainability. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 202(1), 012047.

Valente, T. W., Palinkas, L. A., Czaja, S., & Chu, K. H. (2015). et Brown H. Social Network Analysis for Program Implementation. PLoS One, 10, e0131712.

Vogl, A. (2012). Smart concepts for greener cities. Green Cities, 373–405.


Wulandari, W., & Munawaroh, S. (2020a). The Implementation of Smart City in Creating Innovations of Public Services By Regional Governments (Case Study of Bandung City and Makassar City). Caraka Prabu: Jurnal Ilmu Pemerintahan, 4(1), 48–69.

Wulandari, W., & Munawaroh, S. (2020b). The Implementation of Smart City in Creating Innovations of Public Services By Regional Governments (Case Study of Bandung City and Makassar City). Caraka Prabu: Jurnal Ilmu Pemerintahan, 4(1), 48–69.

Yin, R. K. (2014). Studi Kasus Desain dan Metode (Cetakan Ke-13). Jakarta: Rajawali Pers.

Young, R. F., & Lieberknecht, K. (2019). From smart cities to wise cities: ecological wisdom as a basis for sustainable urban development. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 62(10), 1675–1692.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jkap.82500

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1283 | views : 1434


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 JKAP (Jurnal Kebijakan dan Administrasi Publik)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.