Dampak Program Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional Terhadap Utilisasi Layanan Kesehatan Pasien Kanker Serviks

https://doi.org/10.22146/jkki.38260

Hilmi Sulaiman Rathomi(1*), Fajar Awalia Yulianto(2), Nurul Romadhona(3)

(1) Universitas Islam Bandung
(2) Universitas Islam Bandung
(3) Universitas Islam Bandung
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Program Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional (JKN) di Indonesia bertujuan untuk meningkatkan akses masyarakat terhadap layanan kesehatan yang berkualitas, termasuk masyarakat dengan penyakit katastropik seperti kanker serviks. Pasien kanker serviks seringkali gagal mendapatkan layanan yang optimal dan terdiagnosis pada stadium yang lebih lanjut sehingga menimbulkan beban ekonomi dan kesehatan yang amat berat. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengeksplorasi dampak keberadaan JKN terhadap utilisasi layanan kesehatan pasien kanker serviks. Penelitian ini adalah studi cross sectional yang dilakukan di 2 Rumah Sakit di Kota dan Kabupaten Bandung pada periode 2013 – 2017. Pengambilan data dilakukan pada bulan Mei – Agustus 2018 dengan mengambil seluruh data rekam medis yang tercatat secara lengkap (total sampling). Data dianalisis dengan software STATA versi 13 dengan uji fisher exact. Dari 85 rekam medis yang tercatat secara lengkap didapatkan nilai tengah usia pasien adalah 49 (28 – 80), mengalami paritas 3 kali (0-9), 85% berstatus menikah, 88% merupakan ibu rumah tangga, 68% menggunakan jaminan kesehatan, dan 51% terdiagnosis pada stadium lanjut. Setelah penerapan JKN, terlihat adanya peningkatan utilisasi layanan kesehatan untuk kasus kanker serviks, terutama setelah tahun ketiga. Usia pasien yang terdiagnosis cenderung semakin muda, hampir seluruh pasien menggunakan BPJS untuk pembiayaan, dan stadium saat awal terdiagnosis cenderung semakin dini. Dari uji statistik didapatkan perbedaan bermakna antara periode sebelum dan setelah JKN dari aspek cara pembiayaan (p= 0.00), namun tidak didapatkan perbedaan bermakna pada stadium saat awal terdiagnosis (p> 0.05). Dapat disimpulkan bahwa JKN memiliki dampak terhadap utilisasi dan pola berobat pasien kanker serviks.

Keywords


kanker serviks; utilisasi layanan; dampak JKN; stadium kanker

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jkki.38260

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