Manajemen Gastroenteritis pada Anak: Literature Review

https://doi.org/10.22146/jkkk.84349

Ami Novianti Subagya(1*), Ririn Mutia Zukra(2), Laila Nidaul Hasanah(3)

(1) Departemen Keperawatan Anak dan Maternitas FK KMK UGM
(2) Departemen Keperawatan Anak Univesitas Riau
(3) 
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Background: Gastroenteritis is a common infectious disease in children, especially children under 5 years of age. Gastroenteritis that is not handled properly can cause hypovolemic shock thereby increasing mortality in children.
Objective: This literature review aims to determine the management of gastroenteritis in children and the role of nurses in managing children with gastroenteritis.
Method: This review considers references through PubMed, Science Direct, and Cochrane searches using the search terms “children with acute gastroenteritis”, “management" OR "treatment”, and “nursing therapy”
Result: Management of children with gastroenteritis refers to three aspects, namely the medical aspect (oral rehydration therapy, parenteral rehydration, nasogastric feeding, diet), pharmacological aspects (use of antibiotics, antiemetics, probiotics, zinc, and vaccines), and nursing aspects (identification of the degree of dehydration, assessment of stool characteristics, monitoring and evaluation of rehydration administration).
Conclusion: The main management of children with gastroenteritis is rehydration therapy. Nurses need to assess the degree of dehydration, monitor, and evaluate the administration of rehydration therapy.

ABSTRAK

Latar belakang: Gastroenteritis merupakan salah satu penyakit infeksi yang umum terjadi pada anak khususnya anak di bawah usia 5 tahun. Gastroenteritis yang tidak tertangani dengan baik dapat menyebabkan syok hipovolemia sehingga meningkatkan mortalitas pada anak.
Tujuan: Tinjauan literatur ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui manajemen gastroenteritis pada anak dan peran perawat dalam melakukan tata laksana anak dengan gastroenteritis.
Metode: Ulasan ini mempertimbangkan referensi melalui pencarian PubMed, Science Direct, dan Cochrane dengan menggunakan istilah pencarian “children with acute gastroentritis”, “management" OR "treatment”, dan “nursing therapy”.
Hasil: Manajemen pada anak dengan gastroenteritis mengacu pada tiga aspek, yaitu aspek medis (terapi rehidrasi oral, rehidrasi parenteral, nasogastric feeding, diet), aspek farmakologi (penggunaan antibiotik, antiemetik, probiotik, zink, dan vaksin), dan aspek keperawatan (identifikasi derajat dehidrasi, pengkajian karakteristik feses, pemantauan, dan evaluasi pemberian rehidrasi).
Kesimpulan: Penatalaksanaan utama anak penderita gastroenteritis adalah terapi rehidrasi. Perawat perlu menilai derajat dehidrasi, memantau, dan mengevaluasi pemberian terapi rehidrasi.


Keywords


anak; gastroenteritis; manajemen; rehidrasi

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References

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jkkk.84349

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