Yellow in Black and White: Representasi Identitas Asia oleh Rich Brian dalam Musik Hip-Hop di Amerika Serikat



Nokia Putri Andika Lainsyamputty(1*)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Abstract

The representation of the Asian race in the US music industry is still relatively small. However, Rich Brian, a person of Chinese descent with Indonesian nationality, succeeded in his career by carrying out the hip-hop genre that was firmly rooted in African-American (black) racial groups in the United States, a country which was dominated by Caucasian (white) races. This study aims to uncover how Brian represented his identity in the US hip-hop music scene using Stuart Hall's circuit of culture theory. The object of this research is the lyrics of several songs in Rich Brian's album. Through the analysis process, it was found that Brian did not cover the nationality and race identity he had. He precisely positioned himself on the spectrum of social identity. This then affects the representation of identity that he does in his songs, including revolving around the theme of the meaning of identity and stereotypes of the Asian race, as well as the struggles experienced by Asians who are part of minority groups in the United States.


Abstrak

Representasi ras Asia dalam industri musik Amerika Serikat masih tergolong sedikit. Namun Rich Brian, seseorang keturunan Tionghoa dan berkewarganegaraan Indonesia, berhasil berkarir dengan mengusung genre hip-hop yang berakar kuat pada kelompok ras Afrika-Amerika (black), di negara Amerika Serikat yang didominasi oleh ras kaukasian (white). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkap bagaimana Brian merepresentasikan identitasnya dalam skena musik hip-hop Amerika Serikat menggunakan teori sirkuit budaya oleh Stuart Hall. Objek dalam penelitian ini berupa lirik dari beberapa lagu dalam album milik Rich Brian. Melalui proses analisis, didapati bahwa Brian tidak menutupi identitas kewarganegaraan dan ras yang ia miliki. Ia justru memosisikan dirinya pada spektrum identitas sosial. Hal ini kemudian memengaruhi representasi identitas yang ia lakukan dalam lagu-lagunya, diantaranya berkisar pada tema pemaknaan identitas dan stereotip dari ras Asia, serta perjuangan yang dialami oleh orang Asia yang merupakan bagian dari kelompok minoritas di Amerika Serikat.


Keywords


Asia; budaya; identitas; ras; representasi

Full Text:

PDF


References

Agato, Y. (2019, August 15). Rich Brian on His Growth, Dreams, and Asian Identity. Retrieved from Vice ID: https://www.vice.com/en_asia/article/evj4wp/rich-brian-on-his-growth-dreams-and-asian-identity

Andrew, D. (2018). Konstruksi Image Rich Chigga di Media Sosial dan Media Online. Jurnal E-Komunikasi Program Studi Ilmu Komunikasi Universitas Kristen Petra, 6(1), 1-8.

Barker, C. (2000). Cultural Studies: Theory and Practice. SAGE.

Baron, R. A., & Branscombe, N. R. (2012). Social Psychology: 13th Edition. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

Behm-Morawitz, E., & Ortiz, M. (2012). Race, Ethnicity, and the Media. In K. E. Dill, The Oxford Handbook of Media Psychology (pp. 307-324). New York: Oxford University Press.

Chua, B. H., & Cho, Y. (2012). Editorial introduction: American pop culture. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 485-494.

Cordington, R. (2003). Hip-Hop: The Culture, the Sound, the Science (Review of One Planet under a Groove: Hip-Hop and Contemporary Art. JSTOR : American Anthropological Association, 153-156.

Curtin, P. A., & Gaither, T. K. (2005). Privileging Identity ,Difference, and Power: The Circuit of Culture As a Basis for Public Relations Theory. journal of Public Relation Research, 91-115.

Dao, D. Q. (2019, June 03). How 88Rising Raised the Bar for Asian Representation. Retrieved from Paper.

Dasfriana, D. A. (2019). Komodifikasi dan Universalisme Budaya dalam Asian Hip-hop di Amerika Serikat oleh 88Rising. Skripsi Program Studi Hubungan Internasional Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Universitas Katolik Parahyangan.

Diep, E. (2019, June 26). Rich Brian Returns With "Yellow" and Talks New Album 'The Sailor'. Retrieved from Complex: https://www.complex.com/music/2019/06/rich-brian-interview-yellow-the-sailor

Dirlik, A. (2003). Global Modernity? Modernity In An Age of Global Capitalism. European Journal of Social Theory, 6(3), 275-292.

du Gay, P., Hall, S., Janes, L., Mackay, H., & Negus, K. (1997). Doing Cultural Studies: The Story of Walkman. Glasgow: Bath PRess Colourbooks.

Eberhard, D. M., Simons, G. F., & Fennig, C. D. (2020). Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Twenty-third edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved June 8, 2020, from https://www.ethnologue.com/guides/most-spoken-languages

Geeting, D. B. (2018, February 1). Rich Brian Discusses Debut Album 'Amen' and Name Change: 'Rich Chigga Isn't Me Anymore'. Retrieved from Billboard: https://www.billboard.com/articles/columns/hip-hop/8097424/rich-brian-interview-album-amen-name-change

Hall, S. (1997). The Work of Representation. In S. Hall, Representation: Cultural Representation and Signifying Practices (pp. 13-74). London: The Open University and SAGE Publicdtions Ltd.

Herd, M. (2016, November 24). Rhymes of Brian: Jakarta's Rich Chigga is a home-schooled, hip-hop sensation. Retrieved May 7, 2020, from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/nov/24/rhymes-brian-imanuel-jakarta-rich-chigga-home-schooled-hip-hop-sensation

Iwabuchi, K. (2010). Globalization, East Asian Media Cultures, and Their Publics. Asian Journal of Communication, 197-212.

Kawai, Y. (2005). Stereotyping Asian Americans: The Dialectic of the Model Minority and the Yellow Peril. Howard Journal of Communications, 16(1).

Leve, A. M. (2012). The Circuit of Culture as a generative tool of contemporary analysis: Examining the construction of an education commodity. Joint AARE APERA International Conference, Sydney 2012, 1-12.

Lin, G. (2009). Higher Education Research Methodology-Literature Method. International Education Studies, 2(4), 179-181.

Lull, J. (2001). Superculture for The Communication Age. In J. Lull, Culture In The Communication (pp. 132-164). New York: Taylor & Francis e-Library.

Lynch, J. (2018, January 5). For the first time in history, hip-hop has surpassed rock to become the most popular music genre, according to Nielsen. Retrieved March 24, 2020, from Bloomberg: https://www.businessinsider.com/hip-hop-passes-rock-most-popular-music-genre-nielsen-2018-1?IR=T

Oloka-Onyango, J. (2005, November). Who's Watching "Big Brother"? Globalization and the Protection of Cultural Rights in Present Day Africa. Human Rights Quarterly, 27(4), 1245-1273.

O'Reilly, D. (2010). Cultural Brands/Branding Cultures. Journal Of Marketing Management, 573-588.

Real, M. (2001). Cultural Theory in Popular Culture and Media Spectacles. In J. Lull, Culture in The Communication Age (pp. 167-178). London: Routledge.

Reyes, A. (2017). Language, identity, and stereotype among Southeast Asian American youth: The other Asian. Routledge.

Saputri, K. (2018, February 13). Delegasi Indonesia Siap Tampil di Festival SXSW 2018. Retrieved March 24, 2020, from Badan Ekonomi Kreatif Indonesia: https://www.bekraf.go.id/berita/page/8/delegasi-indonesia-siap-tampil-di-festival-sxsw-2018

Schatz, R. T., & Lavine, H. (2007). Waving the Flag: National Symbolism, Social Identity and Political Engagement. Political Psychology, 329-355.

Sparks, C. (2007). Globalization, Development, and The Mass Media. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

van der Meer, G. (2008). On Connotation, Denotation and All That, or: Why a Nigger Is Not a—Black Person. Proceedings of the XIII EURALEX International Congress, 1547-1555.

Wong, A. (2018, February 2). Rich Brian Learned How to Rap from YouTube. Retrieved April 06, 2020, from GQ: https://www.gq.com/story/rich-brian-amen-interview

Woodward, K. (1997). Concepts of identity and difference. In K. Woodward, Identity and difference (pp. 7-50). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

Wu, C. (2018, April 30). Q&AA: 88RISING'S SEAN MIYASHIRO WANTS TO BUILD 'DISNEY FOR ASIAN CULTURE'. Retrieved March 22, 2020, from AdAge: https://adage.com/article/qaa/q-aa-88rising-s-sean-miyshiro/313297

Zhang, Q. (2010). Asian Americans Beyond the Model Minority Stereotype: The Nerdy and the Left Out. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 20-37.




Article Metrics

Abstract views : 607 | views : 435

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Media dan Komunikasi Indonesia



Department of Communication Science

Faculty of Social and Political Sciences

Universitas Gadjah Mada

 

View My Stats