Pendekatan sistem dalam perencanaan program kesehatan daerah



Mubasysyir Hasanbasri(1*)

(1) 
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Manajer dan peneliti manajemen telah lama mempelajari pendekatan sistem dalam evaluasi dan membangun program kesehatan masyarakat. Pendekatan ini mengacu pada konsep input-proses-output-outcome dan konsep-konsep tentang efektivitas, efisien, dan sustainabilitas. Manajer dinas kesehatan kabupaten biasanya menjadi implementor dari program-program top-down dari pemerintah pusat. Mereka jarang memiliki kesempatan mendesain program yang sesuai dengan kapasitas daerah dan yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan spesifik dari populasi. Meskipun menggunakan analisis sistem, mereka biasanya menerapkannya dalam pengertian yang tidak-kritis. Tulisan ini menguraikan unsur-unsur dari analisis sistem dan manfaatnya dalam evaluasi dan pengembangan dari program. Ia juga menguraikan konsep-konsep dan contoh-contoh dari efektivitas, efisiensi, dan sustainabilitas. Paper ini menekankan penggunaan analisis sistem dalam era otonomi daerah dengan memperhatikan penggunaan sumber-sumber daya yang tersedia di daerah, pentingnya menganalisis kebutuhan spesifik untuk kelompok sasaran, dan titik-titik lemah yang harus diatasi dalam pelaksanaan program.

 

Application of System Analysis Approach to District Health Programs

Managers and management researchers have long been studying the systems approach in evaluating and establishing public health programs. This approach refers to the concept of input-process-output-outcome and the concepts of effectiveness, efficient, and sustainability. District health office manager usually be the implementor of programs top-down from the central government. They rarely have the opportunity to design a program that fits local capacity and to suit the specific needs of the population. Although some district managers have been trained to apply systems analysis in their program, they commonly do it a non-critical sense. This paper outlines the elements of system analysis and its applications in evaluation and development of the program. It also describes concepts and examples of effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability. The paper emphasizes the application of systems analysis in the era of regional autonomy with regard to (1) use of existing resources available to the district in designing public health programs, (2) the importance of analyzing the specific needs of the target group, and (3) weak points to be addressed in the implementation of the program.

 


Keywords


evaluasi;indonesia;pendekatan sistem;analisis sistem;desentralisasi;indonesia;pemerintah daerah;manajer puskesmas;puskesmas



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