Studi Proses Pembuatan Biodiesel dari Minyak Kelapa (Coconut Oil) dengan Bantuan Gelombang Ultrasonik

https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.2453

Sri Kembaryanti Putri(1*), Supranto(2), Rahman Sudiyo(3)

(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract



Biodisel dapat dibuat melalui proses metanolisis berbagai minyak nabati seperti minyak kelapa, minyak kelapa sawit, minyak kedelai dan lain-lain. Minyak kelapa memiliki potensi besar untuk digunakan sebagai bahan baku dalam pembuatan biodisel karena ketersediaannya yang berlimpah. Gelombang ultrasonik dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan konversi reaksi dan mempercepat laju reaksi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari pengaruh penggunaan gelombang ultrasonik dalam proses transesterifikasi minyak kelapa, perbandingan pereaksi, konsentrasi katalisator dan aktivasi metanol terhadap konversi reaksi. Katalisator natrium hidroksida dengan berat tertentu dilarutkan di dalam metanol dalam volum tertentu. Setelah terlarut sempurna bersamaan dengan minyak kelapa dimasukkan ke dalam reaktor dan reaksi dijalankan. Sampel diambil setiap interval 10 menit untuk dianalisis kandungan asam lemaknya. Reaksi dihentikan setelah mencapai waktu 60 menit. Setelah itu, biodisel yang terbentuk dipisahkan dari gliserol dan dimurnikan. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa transesterifikasi minyak kelapa dapat dipacu dengan bantuan gelombang ultrasonik. Konversi reaksi yang dicapai empat kali lebih besar (85,66%) dibandingkan dengan konversi pada proses konvensional (20,15%). Proses dilakukan pada kondisi operasi yang sama; perbandingan pereaksi 5 mgek metanol/mgek minyak, 1% berat katalisator, dan suhu awal reaksi 60°C. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan semakin tinggi perbandingan ekivalen metanol-minyak, semakin tinggi konversi reaksi yang dicapai.

Kata kunci: biodisel, minyak kelapa, transesterifikasi, gelombang ultrasonik, tetapan laju reaksi

Biodiesel is produced by methanolysis of various vegetable oils such as coconut oil, palm oil, seed oil, soybean oil, etc. Coconut oil has the potential as a raw material for making biodiesel due its abundant availability. The use of the ultrasonic waves can increase conversion and reaction rate. The objective of this study was to study the effect of the use of ultrasonic waves on the transesterification of coconut oil, the ratio of reactants, catalyst concentration, and activation of methanol on the reaction conversion. Sodium hydroxide catalyst with a specific weight was dissolved in methanol with a certain volume. After dissolvtion was completed, the reactants including coconut oil with a certain volume were put into the reactor, and reaction was then started. Samples were taken every 10 minute intervals for analysis of fatty acids. The reaction was stopped after 60 minutes. Furthermore, biodiesel was separated from glycerol and purified. Experimental results showed that transesterification of coconut oil could be improved with the help of ultrasonic waves. The obtained conversion was 4 times higher (85,66%) than the conversions generated in the conventional process (20,15%) The process was done in the same condition which was the ratio of reactants of 5 mgek methanol / mgek oil, catalyst 1% by weight oil and the initial reaction temperature of 60C. The greater the ratio of methanol-oil equivalent, the higher reaction conversion is.

Keywords: biodiesel, coconut oil, transesterification, ultrasonic wave, reaction rate constant

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.2453

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