Kinetika Reaksi Esterifikasi Gliserol Monoacetin dari Gliserol Hasil Samping Industri Biodiesel dan Asam Asetat dengan Katalisator Lewatit Monoplus s-100

https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.31034

Anita Arsyad(1*), Hary Sulistyo(2), Sarto(3)

(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Biodiesel is one of the potential candidates for alternative energy to replace fossil fuel. Glycerol is the side product in biodiesel production. To increase the economic value, glycerol can be processed through esterification to produce glycerol monoacetine. Monoacetine is very useful for non-food application such as printing ink, plasticizer, and intermediate material for biodegradable polyester. This research was conducted in batch reactor with variations of reaction temperatures (323 K-343 K), catalyst concentrations (3%, 5%, and 7% w/w of glycerol), and reactant ratios in terms of glycerol and acetate volume ratios (3:1, 5;1, and 7:1). Samples were withdrawn every 15 minutes up to 60 minutes of reaction time and the free fatty acid concentration was measured. Besides, the initial acid concentration and free glycerol in the raw material were also measured. The highest conversion was obtain as much as 63.86% at 343K, 7:1 reactant volume ratio (glycerol: acetic acid), and catalyst concentration of 3% of glycerol weight. The reaction kinetics of glycerol mono acetin production was modeled. Two kinetics models were used, which were pseudo-homogeneous catalytic model and heterogeneous catalytic model. Based on experimental data fitting on the models, it turned out that pseudo-homogeneous model was better representing the esterification of glycerol with Lewatit Monoplus s-100 catalyst.

Keywords: esterification, acetic acid, monoacetin glycerol, Lewatit Monoplus s-100

Biodiesel merupakan salah satu energi alternatif yang diharapkan dapat menggantikan bahan bakar diesel. Gliserol merupakan produk samping dari produksi biodiesel. Untuk meningkatkan nilai ekonominya, gliserol dapat diesterifikasi untuk membentuk gliserol monoacetin. Kegunaan monoacetin sangat banyak untuk keperluan non-makanan seperti pelarut dalam tinta cetak, plasticizer dan bahan baku poliester yang biodegradable. Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam sistem batch dengan variasi suhu reaksi 323 K–343 K, konsentrasi katalis 3%, 5% dan 7% dari massa gliserol, serta perbandingan volum pereaksi (gliserol:asam asetat) 3:1, 5:1 dan 7:1. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan setiap 15 menit sampai waktu 60 menit untuk dianalisis kadar asam bebasnya. Dalam penelitian ini kinetika reaksi gliserol monoacetin didekati dengan model matematis yang disusun dari persamaan neraca massa. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan konversi tertinggi diperoleh sebesar 63,86% pada suhu 343 K, perbandingan volum gliserol: asam asetat sebesar 7:1 dan konsentrasi katalis 3% dari massa gliserol yang digunakan. Pada penelitian ini, diuji 2 model kinetika reaksi yaitu model katalitik pseudo-homogen dan model `katalitik heterogen. Berdasarkan kesesuaian dengan data eksperimen, model pseudo-homogen lebih sesuai untuk esterifikasi gliserol dengan katalisator Lewatit Monoplus s-100.

Kata kunci: esterifikasi, asam asetat, gliserol monoacetin, Lewatit monoplus s-100



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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.31034

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