Comparative Study of Nyamplung (Callophylum inophyllum) Kernel Oil Obtained from Mechanical and Chemical Extraction for Biofuel Production

https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.42816

Hanifah Widiastuti(1*), Meiti Pratiwi(2), Godlief F. Neonufa(3), Tatang Hernas Soerawidjaja(4), Tirto Prakoso(5)

(1) Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politeknik Negeri Batam, 29464 Batam, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, 40132 Bandung, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, 40132 Bandung, Indonesia Department of Agriculture Product Technology, Universitas Kristen Artha Wacana, 85000 Kupang, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, 40132 Bandung, Indonesia
(5) Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, 40132 Bandung, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Nyamplung (Callophylum inophyllum) contains oil around 40-73% in its seed. It has recently gained recognition as a potential source for biofuel production. The oil recovery process from renewable sources such as nyamplung is widely carried out by using chemical extraction with solvents. Nevertheless, this method is considered costly and there are safety issues as well as environmental concerns related to the solvents used. Therefore, mechanical extraction has emerged as an alternative method. In this study, the nyamplung oil recovered by mechanical extraction via hydraulic press and chemical extraction utilizing Soxhlet extraction was compared. Soxhlet extraction was carried out by using n-hexane as a solvent with a temperature of 70 oC for 5 hours. Before the extraction process, the kernel was initially pretreated to reduce the particle sizes and the water content. The results show that the oil yield recovered using the hydraulic press is 58%, which is comparable with the value obtained from Soxhlet extraction (65%). The oil characteristics were also compared, and the profiling shows no significant difference in the properties (saponification value, acid value, and iodine value) of oils recovered using both methods. The composition of fatty acids was also analyzed for utilization as a biofuel feedstock. Higher content of oleic acid was observed in oil resulted from chemical extraction while mechanical extraction yielded oil with higher palmitic acid content.

A B S T R A K

Nyamplung (Callophylum inophyllum) mengandung minyak sebesar 40-73% dalam bijinya dan belakangan ini diakui sebagai sumber potensial untuk pembuatan biofuel. Proses perolehan minyak nabati dari biji nyamplung pada umumnya dilakukan menggunakan ekstraksi kimia dengan pelarut. Akan tetapi, metode ini cenderung berbiaya tinggi serta memiliki isu berkaitan dengan keselamatan proses dan dampak lingkungan berkaitan dengan penggunaan pelarut. Oleh karena itu, metode ekstraksi mekanis banyak dikembangkan sebagai alternatif metode ekstraksi minyak. Dalam penelitian ini, hasil perolehan minyak nyamplung melalui penekanan hidrolik dibandingkan dengan hasil dari ekstraksi Soxhlet. Ekstraksi Soxhlet dilakukan dengan pelarut n-heksana pada suhu 70 oC selama 5 jam. Sebelum proses ekstraksi, biji nyamplung mengalami perlakuan awal terlebih dahulu dengan cara digiling untuk mengurangi ukuran biji dan dipanaskan untuk mengurangi kadar air. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa yield minyak dari ektraksi mekanik sebesar 58% sementara yield dari ekstraksi Soxhlet adalah 65%. Karakteristik minyak yang dihasilkan melalui kedua metode ini tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan dalam hal nilai saponifikasi, nilai asam, dan nilai iodine. Analisis komposisi asam lemak dari kedua minyak yang dihasilkan menunjukkan bahwa minyak yang diperoleh dari ekstraksi kimia mengandung asam oleat dengan persentase yang lebih tinggi sementara minyak dari hasil ekstraksi mekanik memiliki persentase asam palmitat yang lebih tinggi.


Keywords


biofuel; hydraulic press; nyamplung (Callophylum inophyllum); Soxhlet extraction

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.42816

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