Modifikasi Pati Ketela Pohon Secara Kimia dengan Oleoresin dari Minyak Jahe

https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.568

Diah Susetyo Retnowati(1*), Andre Cahyo Kumoro(2), Sri Budiyati(3)

(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Modifikasi pati akhir-akhir ini banyak dikembangkan dan dipakai untuk keperluan industri makanan, kertas dan tekstil. Modifikasi pati, khususnya secara kimia dilakukan untuk memperbaiki sifat-sifat fungsional pati, terutama jika untuk keperluan bahan dasar makanan. Modifikasi pati ketela pohon dilakukan dengan mereaksikan suspensi pati dengan minyak jahe yang mengandung zat aktif gingerol pada suhu kamar. Hasil percobaan modifikasi menunjukkan bahwa meningkatnya perbandingan antara pati/air/minyak jahe (b/v/v), menghasilkan pati termodifikasi dengan swelling power, kelarutan dan kerapatan cross-link yang lebih tinggi. Pada komposisi pati terhadap air dan minyak jahe, 300:400:0,4 (b/v/v) menghasilkan pati termodifikasi yang cocok digunakan sebagai bahan pengemas makanan yang dapat dimakan (edible food packaging) dengan nilai swelling power, kelarutan dan kerapatan cross-link adalah 7,3 kali; 6,662 mg/mL dan 780,69 rantai/cm3. Sedangkan komposisi pati:air:miyak jahe sebesar 300:300:0,3 (b/v/v) merupakan komposisi terbaik untuk menghasilkan pati termodifikasi sebagai bahan pangan dengan nilai swelling power, kelarutan dan kerapatan cross-link berturut-turut adalah 8,96 kali; 10,55 mg/mL, 203,85 rantai/cm3. Hasil analisis dengan scanning electron microscopy (SEM) menunjukkan bahwa modifikasi pati ketela pohon dengan teknik cross-linking ternyata tidak mengubah struktur permukaan butir pati.

Kata kunci: reaksi suspensi, pati ketela pohon, gingerol, swelling power, cross-link

Recently, starch modifications have been developed and are applied for food, paper and textile industries. In general, chemical modification has been done to improve starch functionality, especially for bread, cake and snack making. In the present work, suspension method was used to modify cassava starch by gingerol of crude ginger rhizome extract at room temperature. The effect of starch/water/gingerol (w/v/v) ratio on swelling power, water solubility, and cross-link density of the modified starch was investigated. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were also conducted to observe possible structural changes of the resulting starch. The experimental results showed that reactant composition that had a starch/water/gingerol (w/v/v) ratio of 300:400:0.4 produced modified starch suitable for edible coating with swelling power of 7.3 times, solubility of 6.662 mg/mL and cross-link density of 780.69 chains/cm3. Meanwhile, reactant having starch/water/gingerol (w/v/v) ratio of 300:300:0.3 produced modified starch that could be used for food with swelling power, solubility and cross-linking density of 8.96, 10.55 mg/mL and 203.85 chains/cm2, respectively. The cross-link densities achieved in this modification process were high and reproducible that indicated a strong interaction between starch and gingerol molecules in water as dispersant. However, there were no noticeable changes found from the micrograph of the SEM analysis on the external surface of the cassava starch.

Keywords: suspension method, cassava starch, gingerol, swelling power, cross-link

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.568

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