Potensi Polisakarida dari Limbah Buah-buahan sebagai Koagulan Alami dalam Pengolahan Air dan Limbah Cair: Review


Hans Kristianto(1*), Angelica Jennifer(2), Asaf Kleopas Sugih(3), Susiana Prasetyo(4)

(1) Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknologi Industri, Universitas Katolik Parahyangan Jl. Ciumbuleuit No. 94 Bandung 40141
(2) Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknologi Industri, Universitas Katolik Parahyangan Jl. Ciumbuleuit No. 94 Bandung 40141
(3) Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknologi Industri, Universitas Katolik Parahyangan Jl. Ciumbuleuit No. 94 Bandung 40141
(4) Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknologi Industri, Universitas Katolik Parahyangan Jl. Ciumbuleuit No. 94 Bandung 40141
(*) Corresponding Author


Nowadays, various studies related to utilization of biobased materials as natural coagulants have been explored. Based on the source, natural coagulants can be classified as animal, vegetable, or microbial based. Furthermore, based on the active ingredients, it can be classified as protein, polyphenols, and polysaccharides. Polysaccharides are abundant natural ingredients and are often found in plants or animals. In this study, we focused on polysaccharides, especially those from fruit waste, such as seeds and fruit peels. It is known that around 25-30% of the total weight of fruit is generally wasted, even though it contains phytochemicals and various active ingredients that can be utilized, especially as a natural coagulant. This review will focus on the use of pectin and starch from fruit waste as natural coagulants for water- wastewater treatment. Generally, pectin is commonly found in the skin of fruits as part of the cell wall structure, while starch is found in fruit seeds as food reserves. To be used as a natural coagulant, pectin or starch need to be extracted first. In particular, starch needs to be modified either physically or chemically. The coagulation mechanism of pectin and starch usually follows the interparticle bridging mechanism. The use of pectin and starch from fruit waste needs to be explored and further investigated, to substitute the use of chemical coagulants.

Keywords: coagulation; fruit waste; natural coagulant; polysaccharides


Dewasa ini berbagai studi terkait pemanfaatan bahan alam sebagai koagulan alami telah banyak dieksplorasi. Berdasarkan sumbernya, koagulan alami dapat digolongkan berbasis hewani, nabati, maupun mikrobial, sementara berdasarkan bahan aktifnya dapat digolongkan sebagai protein, polifenol, dan polisakarida. Polisakarida merupakan bahan alam yang berlimpah dan seringkali dijumpai pada tumbuh-tumbuhan dan hewan. Pada kajian ini difokuskan pada polisakarida terutama yang berasal dari limbah buah-buahan yang tidak termanfaatkan, seperti biji dan kulit buah. Diketahui sekitar 25-30% dari total berat buah pada umumnya terbuang, padahal memiliki kandungan fitokimia dan berbagai bahan aktif yang dapat dimanfaatkan, salah satunya sebagai koagulan alami. Pada tinjauan ini akan difokuskan pada pemanfaatan pektin dan pati dari limbah buah-buahan sebagai koagulan alami untuk pengolahan air dan limbah cair. Secara umum pektin umum dijumpai pada bagian kulit buah-buahan sebagai bagian dari struktur dinding sel, sementara pati umum dijumpai pada biji buah-buahan sebagai cadangan makanan. Untuk dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai koagulan alami, pektin ataupun pati perlu diekstrak terlebih dahulu, dan pati secara khusus perlu dimodifikasi baik secara fisika maupun kimia. Secara umum mekanisme koagulasi oleh pektin dan pati mengikuti mekanisme interparticle bridging. Pemanfaatan pektin dan pati dari limbah buah-buahan perlu dieksplorasi dan diteliti lebih lanjut, agar dapat mensubstitusi penggunaan koagulan kimia secara komersial.

Kata kunci: koagulasi; koagulan alami; limbah buah-buahan; polisakarida


coagulation; fruit waste; natural coagulant; polysaccharides

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.57798

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