Microwave assisted extraction of anthocyanin from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) using deep eutectic solvent (DES) based on citric acid


Rachma Tia Evitasari(1*), Hana Rofiqoh(2), Putri Alfina Damayanti(3), Firda Mahira Alfiata Chusna(4)

(1) Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan Kampus IV UAD, Jalan Jend. Ahmad Yani, Tamanan, Banguntapan, 55191 Bantul
(2) Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan Kampus IV UAD, Jalan Jend. Ahmad Yani, Tamanan, Banguntapan, 55191 Bantul
(3) Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan Kampus IV UAD, Jalan Jend. Ahmad Yani, Tamanan, Banguntapan, 55191 Bantul
(4) Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan Kampus IV UAD, Jalan Jend. Ahmad Yani, Tamanan, Banguntapan, 55191 Bantul
(*) Corresponding Author


Purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is one of the tubers or roots that is widely grown in Indonesia that contain high antioxidants. One type of flavonoid that functions as an antioxidant is a natural dye called anthocyanin. In the process of extraction of anthocyanin, the solvent has an important role. In this research, the deep eutectic solvent was used because it is more economical and environmentally friendly. This research will optimize the microwave assisted extraction of anthocyanin content in purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) using a deep eutectic solvent with the variation of material to solvent ratio, microwave power, and extraction time. Optimization is done by using the statistical method Response Surface Method (RSM) with Total Anthocyanin content as a response. The optimum operating conditions for the extraction of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato using the deep eutectic solvent were obtained at a solid to solvent ratio of 1:29 at a microwave power of 270 watts for 193 s, with an optimum TAC value of 311.64 mg/L and an antioxidant value of 44.85%. The use of DES can increase the extraction yield and is environmentally friendly.


anthocyanin; deep eutectic solvent; extraction; Ipomoea batatas; solvent

Full Text:



Afandy MA, Nuryanti S, Diah WM. 2017. Variasi pelarut serta pemanfaatannya sebagai indikator asam-basa extraction of purple sweet potato ( ipomoea batatas l .) Using solvent variation and its utilization as acid-base indicator. Jurnal Akademika Kimia. 6(2):79–85. http://jurnal.u ntad.ac.id/jurnal/index.php/JAK/article/view/9237/7344.

Armanzah SR, Hendrawati TY. 2016. Pengaruh waktu maserasi zat antosianin sebagai pewarna alami dari ubi jalar ungu (ipomoea batatasl). Seminar Naional Sains dan Teknologi. (November):1–10. https://jurnal.umj.ac. id/index.php/semnastek/article/view/724.

Bueno JM, Sáez-Plaza P, Ramos-Escudero F, Jiménez AM, Fett R, Asuero AG. 2012. Analysis and antioxidant capacity of anthocyanin pigments. Part II: Chemical structure, color, and intake of anthocyanins. Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry. 42(2):126–151. doi:10.1080/10408347.2011.632314.

Cacace JE, Mazza G. 2003. Optimization of extraction of anthocyanins from black currants with aqueous ethanol. Journal of Food Science. 68(1):240–248. doi:10.1111/j.13 65-2621.2003.tb14146.x.

Castañeda-Ovando A, Pacheco-Hernández MdL, PáezHernández ME, Rodríguez JA, Galán-Vidal CA. 2009. Chemical studies of anthocyanins: A review. Food Chemistry. 113(4):859–871. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.09.001.

Cavalcanti RN, Santos DT, Meireles MAA. 2011. Non-thermal stabilization mechanisms of anthocyanins in model and food systems-An overview. Food Research International. 44(2):499–509. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2010.12.007.

Dai Y, van Spronsen J, Witkamp GJ, Verpoorte R, Choi YH. 2013. Naturaldeepeutecticsolventsasnew potentialmediafor green technology. Analytica Chimica Acta. 766:61–68. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2012.12.019.

Duan L, Dou LL, Guo L, Li P, Liu EH. 2016. Comprehensive Evaluation of Deep Eutectic Solvents in Extraction of Bioactive Natural Products. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering. 4(4):2405–2411. doi:10.1021/acssuschem eng.6b00091.

Duan W, Jin S, Zhao G, Sun P. 2015. Microwave-assisted extraction of anthocyanin from Chinese bayberry and its effects on anthocyanin stability. Food Science and Technology (Brazil). 35(3):524–530. doi:10.1590/1678-457X.6731.

Gras CC, Nemetz N, Carle R, Schweiggert RM. 2017. Anthocyanins from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.)Lam.) and their color modulation by the addition of phenolic acids and food-grade phenolic plant extracts. Food Chemistry. 235:265–274. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.04.169.

Huang H, Xu Q, Belwal T, Li L, Aalim H, Wu Q, Duan Z, Zhang X, Luo Z. 2019. Ultrasonicimpact on viscosity and extraction efficiency of polyethylene glycol: A greener approach for anthocyanins recovery from purple sweet potato. Food Chemistry. 283:59–67. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.01.017.

Kalhor P, Ghandi K. 2019. Deep eutectic solvents for pretreatment, extraction, and catalysis of biomass and food waste. Molecules. 24(22):4012. doi:10.3390/molecules2 4224012.

Kim HW, Kim JB, Cho SM, Chung MN, Lee YM, Chu SM, Che JH, Kim SN, Kim SY, Cho YS, Kim JH, Park HJ, Lee DJ. 2012. Anthocyanin changes in the Korean purple-fleshed sweet potato, Shinzami, as affected by steaming and baking. Food Chemistry. 130(4):966–972. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.08.031.

Kurtulbaş E, Pekel AG, Bilgin M, Makris DP, Şahin S. 2022. Citric acid-based deep eutectic solvent for the anthocyanin recovery from Hibiscus sabdariffa through microwaveassisted extraction. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. 12(2):351–360. doi:10.1007/s13399-020-00606-3.

Lee J, Durst RW, Wrolstad RE, Eisele T, Giusti MM, Hach J, Hofsommer H, Koswig S, Krueger DA, Kupina; S, Martin SK, Martinsen BK, Miller TC, Paquette F, Ryabkova A, Skrede G, Trenn U, Wightman JD. 2005. Determination of total monomeric anthocyanin pigment content of fruit juices, beverages, natural colorants, and wines by the ph differential method: Collaborative study. Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL. 88(5):1269–1278. doi:10.1093/ja oac/88.5.1269.

Li A, Xiao R, He S, An X, He Y, Wang C, Yin S, Wang B, Shi X, He J. 2019. Research advances of purple sweet potato anthocyanins: Extraction, identification, stability, bioactivity, application, and biotransformation. Molecules. 24(21):21. doi:10.3390/molecules24213816.

Liu W, Yang C, Zhou C, Wen Z, Dong X. 2019. An improved microwave-assisted extraction of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato in favor of subsequent comprehensive utilization of pomace. Food and Bioproducts Processing. 115:1–9. doi:10.1016/j.fbp.2019.02.003.

Mahmudatussa’adah A, Fardiaz D, Andarwulan N, Kusnandar

F. 2014. Karakteristik warna dan aktivitas antioksidan antosianin ubi jalar ungu [color characteristics and antioxidant activity of anthocyanin extract from purple sweet potato]. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan. 25(2):176– 184. doi:10.6066/jtip.2014.25.2.176.

Montilla EC, Hillebrand S, Butschbach D, Baldermann S, Watanabe N, Winterhalter P. 2010. Preparative isolation of anthocyanins from Japanese purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) varieties by high-speed countercurrent chromatography. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58(18):9899–9904. doi:10.1021/jf101898j.

Owczarek K, Szczepanska N, Plotka-Wasylka J, Rutkowska M, Shyshchak O, Bratychak M, Namiesnik J. 2016. Natural deep eutectic solvents in extraction process. Chemistry and Chemical Technology. 10(4s):601–606. doi:10.23939/chcht10.04si.601.

Tomé LI, Baião V, da Silva W, Brett CM. 2018. Deep eutectic solvents for the production and application of new materials. volume 10. Elsevier Ltd, 1 March: Applied Materials Today. doi:10.1016/j.apmt.2017.11.005.

Truong V, Hu Z, Thompson R, Yencho G, Pecota K. 2012. Pressurized liquid extraction and quantification of anthocyanins in purple-fleshed sweet potato genotypes. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 26(1-2):96–103. do i:10.1016/j.jfca.2012.03.006.

Yin Y, Jia J, Wang T, Wang C. 2017. Optimization of natural anthocyanin efficient extracting from purple sweet potato for silk fabric dyeing. Journal of Cleaner Production. 149:673–679. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.02.134.

Yudiono K. 2011. Ekstraksi Antosianin dari Ubi Jalar Ungu (Ipomoea batatas cv. ayamurasaki) dengan Teknik Ekstraksi Subcritical Water. Teknologi pangan. 2(1):1–30. doi:https://doi.org/10.35891/tp.v2i1.479.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.72046

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1034 | views : 967


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 The authors

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Rekayasa Proses  (print ISSN 1978-287X; online ISSN 2549-1490) is published by Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada. View website statistics.