The production of corn kernel miso based on rice-koji fermented by Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus

https://doi.org/10.22146/jtbb.28765

Diah Ratnaningrum(1*), Thelma Agustina Budiwati(2), Tri Darsini(3), Panji Cahya Mawarda(4)

(1) Research Unit for Clean Technology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences
(2) Research Unit for Clean Technology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences
(3) Sebelas Maret University
(4) Research Unit for Clean Technology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The suitability of corn kernel as raw material to produce miso fermented by rice-koji containing Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus has been investigated. The optimization was conducted on two important factors in miso production namely mold composition in rice-koji and salt concentration. The mold composition was prepared by inoculating the spores of 2% A. oryzae, 2% R. oligosporus, and 2% the mixture of both in a ratio of 1:1, 2:1, and 1:2 (v/v) into different rice media. The mold composition was optimized to produce rice-koji with high α-amylase and protease activity. Different NaCl concentrations of 10%, 15%, and 20% were subjected to optimization process and added to each mixture after five days of fermentation. The salt concentration was also optimized to produce corn kernel miso with high glucose and high dissolved protein concentration. The result showed that rice-koji containing A. oryzae and R. oligosporus in the ratio of 1:1 had the highest α-amylase and protease activity of 0.42 U/mL and 0.45 U/mL respectively. In addition, the presence of 10% NaCl in corn kernel miso fermented by A. oryzae and R. oligosporus in the ratio of 1:1 exhibited the highest glucose and dissolved protein concentration of 0.64 mg/mL and 8.80 mg/mL respectively. The optimized corn kernel miso by A. oryzae and R. oligosporus in the ratio of 1:1 with 10% NaCl was subjected to nutrient content analysis and compared to the result before the corn kernel was fermented. The nutrient content analysis showed nutrient enhancement after corn kernel was fermented and transformed into a miso. Glucose, dissolved protein, and fat content increased 6.74, 1.34, 7.63 times respectively. This study concludes corn kernel could be utilized to produce a novel corn kernel miso for dietary diversification and for improving nutritional and health status.


Keywords


miso, rice-koji, corn kernel, Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizopus oligosporus.

Full Text:

PDF


References

Almansouri, M., Kinet, J. M., & Lutts, S., 2001, Effect of salt and osmotic stresses on germination in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), Plant and Soil 231 (2), 243-254.

Bourdichon, F., Casaregola, S., Farrokh, C., Frisvad, J.C., Gerds, M.L., Hammes, W.P., Harnett, J., Huys, G., Laulund, S., Ouwehand, A., & Powell, I.B., 2012, Food fermentations: microorganisms with technological beneficial use, International Journal of Food Microbiology 154 (3), 87-97.

Coronado, M. J., Vargas, C., Hofemeister, J., Ventosa, A., & Nieto, J. J., 2000, Production and biochemical characterization of an α-amylase from the moderate halophile Halomonas meridian, FEMS Microbiology Letters 183(1), 67-71.

de Castro, R. J. S., & Sato H. H., 2014, Production and biochemical characterization of protease from Aspergillus oryzae: an evaluation of the physical–chemical parameters using agroindustrial wastes as supports, Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology 3(3), 20-25.

Dodia, Mital S., Joshi, Rupal H., Patel, Rajesh K., Singh, & Satya P., 2006, Characterization and stability of extracellular alkaline proteases from halophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria isolated from saline habitat of coastal Gujarat, India. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 37(3), 276-282.

Dutta, T. K., Jana, M., PAHARI, P. R., & Bhattacharya, T., 2006, The effect of temperature, pH, and salt on amylase in Heliodiaptomus viduus (Gurney) (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida), Turkish Journal of Zoology 30 (2), 187-195.

Esaki, H., Onozaki, H., Kawakishi, S., & Osawa, T., 1997, Antioxidant activity and isolation from soybeans fermented with Aspergillus spp, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 45(6), 2020-2024.

Fanzo, J., Hunter, D., Borelli, T., & Mattei, F., 2013, Diversifying food and diets using agricultural biodiversity to improve nutrition and health. New York: Biodiversity International.

Fentahun, M., & Kumari, P. V., 2017, Isolation and screening of amylase producing thermophilic spore forming Bacilli from starch rich soil and characterization of their amylase activity, African Journal of Microbiology Research 11(21), 851-859.

Folin, O., & Wu, H., 1919, A system of blood analysis, J Biol Chem. 38(1), 81-110.

Gardini, F., Martuscelli, M., Caruso, M.C., Galgano, F., Crudele, M.A., Favati, F., Guerzoni, M.E. & Suzzi, G., 2001, Effects of pH, temperature and NaCl concentration on the growth kinetics, proteolytic activity and biogenic amine production of Enterococcus faecalis, International Journal of Food Microbiology 64(1), 105-117.

Han, B. Z., Ma, Y., Rombouts, F. M., & Nout, M. R., 2003, Effects of temperature and relative humidity on growth and enzyme production by Actinomucor elegans and Rhizopus oligosporus during sufupehtze preparation, Food Chemistry 81(1), 27-34.

Hirota, A., Taki, S., Kawaii, S., Yano, M., & Abe, N., 2000, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging compounds from soybean Miso and antiproliferative activity of isoflavones from soybean Miso toward the cancer cell lines, Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 64 (5), 1038-1040.

Hong, K. J., Lee, C. H., & Kim, S. W., 2004, Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 fermentation improves nutritional quality of food soybeans and feed soybean meals, Journal of Medicinal Food 7(4), 430-435.

Kennedy, G. L., Pedro, M. R., Seghieri, C., Nantel, G., & Brouwer, I., 2007, Dietary diversity score is a useful indicator of micronutrient intake in non-breast-feeding Filipino children, The Journal of Nutrition 137(2), 472-477.

Kumar, S., & Khare, S. K., 2015, Chloride activated halophilic α-amylase from Marinobacter sp EMB8: production optimization and nanoimmobilization for efficient starch hydrolysis, Enzyme Research 2015.

Kunitz, M. T., 1947, Crystalline soybean trypsin inhibitor, The Journal of General Physiology 30(4), 291-310.

Kusumoto, K. I., and Rai, A. K., 2017, ‘Miso, the Traditional Fermented Soybean Paste of Japan’ in Ray, R.C. and Montet, D., (Eds.), Fermented Foods, Part II: Technological Interventions, Florida: CRC Press.

Kwon, D. Y., Daily, J. W., Kim, H. J., & Park, S., 2010, Antidiabetic effects of fermented soybean products on type 2 diabetes, Nutrition Research 30(1), 1-13.

Lin, C. H., Wei, Y. T., & Chou, C. C, 2006, Enhanced antioxidative activity of soybean koji prepared with various filamentous fungi, Food Microbiology 23(7), 628-633.

Lowry, O. H., Rosebrough, N. J., Farr, A. L., & Randall, R. J., 1951, Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent, Journal of Biological Chemistry 193(1), 265-275.

Machida, M., Yamada, O., & Gomi, K., 2008, Genomics of Aspergillus oryzae: learning from the history of Koji mold and exploration of its future, DNA Research 15(4), 173-183.

Manirakiza, P., Covaci, A., & Schepens, P., 2001, Comparative study on total lipid determination using Soxhlet, Roese-Gottlieb, Bligh and Dyer, and modified Bligh and Dyer extraction methods, Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 14(1), 93-100.

Marui, J., Tada, S., Fukuoka, M., Wagu, Y., Shiraishi, Y., Kitamoto, N., Sugimoto, T., Hattori, R., Suzuki, & S., Kusumoto, K.I. (2013). Reduction of the degradation activity of umami-enhancing purinic ribonucleotide supplement in Miso by the targeted suppression of acid phosphatases in the Aspergillus oryzae starter culture, International Journal of Food Microbiology 166(2), 238-243.

Maurus, R., Begum, A., Williams, L. K., Fredriksen, J. R., Zhang, R., Withers, S. G., & Brayer, G. D., 2008, Alternative catalytic anions differentially modulate human α-amylase activity and specificity, Biochemistry 47(11), 3332-3344.

Mohapatra, B. R., Banerjee, U. C., & Bapuji, M., 1998, Characterization of a fungal amylase from Mucor sp. associated with the marine sponge Spirastrella sp, Journal of Biotechnology 60(1), 113-117.

Moursi, M. M., Arimond, M., Dewey, K. G., Trèche, S., Ruel, M. T., & Delpeuch, F., 2008, Dietary diversity is a good predictor of the micronutrient density of the diet of 6-to 23-month-old children in Madagascar, The Journal of Nutrition 138(12), 2448-2453.

Oboh, G., & Ajele, J. O., 1997, Effects of some metallic chlorides on the activity of ß-amylase from sweet potatoes, Nigerian, Journal Biochemistry Molecular Biology 12, 73-75.

Patel, R., Dodia, M., Singh, & S. P., 2005, Extracellular alkaline protease from a newly isolated haloalkaliphilic Bacillus sp.: Production and optimization, Process Biochemistry 40(11), 3569-3575.

Peinado, I., Miles, W., & Koutsidis, G., 2016, Odour characteristics of seafood flavour formulations produced with fish by-products incorporating EPA, DHA and fish oil, Food Chemistry 212, 612-619.

Qian, M., Haser, R., & Payan, F., 1995, Carbohydrate binding sites in a pancreatic α‐amylase‐substrate complex, derived from X‐ray structure analysis at 2.1 Å resolution. Protein Science 4(4), 747-755.

Rah, J.H., Akhter, N., Semba, R.D., De Pee, S., Bloem, M.W., Campbell, A.A., Moench-Pfanner, R., Sun, K., Badham, J., & Kraemer, K., 2010, Low dietary diversity is a predictor of child stunting in rural Bangladesh, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64(12), 1393-1398.

Shimizu, N., Du, D. D., Sakuyama, H., Ito, Y., Sonoda, M., Kawakubo, K., & Uehara, Y., 2015, Continuous Subcutaneous Administration of Miso Extracts Attenuates Salt-Induced Hypertension in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats, Food and Nutrition Sciences 6(8), 693.

Somogyi, M, 1952, Determination of reducing sugars by Nelson–Somogyi method. Journal Biological Chemistry 200, 245.

Starzyńska-Janiszewska, A., Stodolak, B., & Wikiera, A., 2015, Proteolysis in tempeh-type products obtained with Rhizopus and Aspergillus strains from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds, Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria 14(2), 125-132.

Su, N. W., Wang, M. L., Kwok, K. F., & Lee, M. H., 2005, Effects of temperature and sodium chloride concentration on the activities of proteases and amylases in soy sauce koji, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53(5), 1521-1525.

Sugai-Guérios, M. H., Balmant, W., Krieger, N., Junior, A. F., & Mitchell, D. A., 2016, Colonization of solid particles by Rhizopus oligosporus and Aspergillus oryzae in solid-state fermentation involves two types of penetrative hyphae: A model-based study on how these hyphae grow, Biochemical Engineering Journal 114, 173-182.

Takefuji, H., Ninomiya, J., & Morita, H., 2016, ‘Improving the Yield of Glucoamylase and [alpha]-amylase in Solid-state Co-culture’, Hong Kong Chemical, Biological & Environmental Engineering Society: 3rd International Conference on Chemical and Food Engineering, MATEC  62 Proceeding, Tokyo, Japan, April 8-9, 2016, pp. 1-6

Tanaka, T., Okazaki, N., & Kitani, M., 1982, Growth of mold on uncooked grains: Comparison of growth and enzyme production between Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus sp, Journal of the Brewing Society of Japan 77(11), 831-835.

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) & Food Agricultural Service (FAS), 2017, ‘World Agricultural Production’, in FAS Website, viewed 17 August 2017, from https://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/production.pdf

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2016, ‘National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference’ in US Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service Website Release 28 Website, viewed 12 March 2018, from https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/

Villeger, R., Cachon, R., & Urdaci, C.M., 2017, ‘Fermented Foods, Microbiology, biochemistry, and Biotechnology’, in: RC. Ray and D. Montet, (Eds.), Fermented Foods, Part II: Technological Interventions, pp 1-20, CRC Press, Florida

Watson, S. A., 2003, ‘Description, development, structure and composition of the corn kernel’ in: J. White, and L. Johnason, (Eds.), Corn: Chemistry and Technology, pp 69−101, American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul.

Williams, D. N., Ehrman, S. H., & Holoman, T. R. P., 2006, Evaluation of the microbial growth response to inorganic nanoparticles, Journal of Nanobiotechnology 4(1), 3.

Yigzaw, Y., Gorton, L., Solomon, T., & Akalu, G., 2004, Fermentation of seeds of Teff (Eragrostis teff), grass-pea (Lathyrus sativus), and their mixtures: aspects of nutrition and food safety, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52(5) 1163-1169.

Yu, K. W., Lee, S. E., Choi, H. S., Suh, H. J., Ra, K. S., Choi, J. W., & Hwang, J. H, 2012, Optimization for rice koji preparation using aspergillus oryzae CJCM-4 isolated from a korean traditional meju, Food Science and Biotechnology 21(1), 129-135.

Zaid, A. A. & El-Shenawy, N. S, 2010, Effect of Miso (A soybean fermented food) on some human cell lines; HEPG2, MCF7 and HCT116, Journal of American Science 12, 6.

 



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jtbb.28765

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 405 | views : 158

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Tropical Biodiversity and Biotechnology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Editoral address:

Faculty of Biology, UGM

Jl. Teknika Selatan, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia

ISSN: 2540-9573 (print), 2540-9581 (online)

 

Site visitors: 

web
analytics

View My Stats