Variability and Intra-Specific Classification of Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) from Timor Island based on Morphological Characters

https://doi.org/10.22146/jtbb.42547

Emilia Juliyanti Bria(1*), E. Suharyanto(2), Purnomo Purnomo(3)

(1) Program Study of Biology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Timor
(2) Laboratory of Plant Structure and Development, Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Laboratory of Plant Systematic, Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) is a species of beans which originating from the regions of Central America and Andes Mountains. Lima bean in Timor Island is underutilized although these plant growth there and have many variations. This study aims to determine the diversity of lima beans on Timor Island based on morphological characters. Samples were collected by survey methods from three districts on the island of Timor. Morphological traits related to the vegetative and flowering stages and mature seeds morphology were scored using the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute lima bean descriptors with a soft modification. The similarity index is calculated using the General Similarity Coefficient Gower formula. The dendogram is generated from cluster analysis using the Unweighted Pair Group Methods using Arithmetic Average (UPGMA) method. Furthermore, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to determine the role of each morphological character used. The dendogram shows that 23 collected accessions are divided into two main clusters with a 57% similarity index. The two clusters are distinguished based on the presence or absence of secondary colors and secondary patterns in the seed organs. Then, each main cluster is divided into two subclasses based on the character of the pigmentation stem, the length of the terminal leaflets, flower color, and seed type.


Keywords


Phaseolus lunatus L.;morphological variability; phenetic relationship; Timor Island

Full Text:

PDF


References

Arora, R.K., 2014, Diversity in Underutilized Plant Species – An Asia-Pacific Perspective. Bioversity International, New Delhi, India.

Asante, I.K., Offei, S.K., Addy, R., and Carson, A.G., 2008, Phenotypic and Seed Protein Analysis in 31 Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus) Accessions in Ghana, West African Journal of Applied Ecology, 12.

Baudoin, J.P., 1989, Sumber Daya Nabati Asia Tenggara 1, In: van der Maesen, L.J.G. & Somaatmadja, S. (Editors.), Translator Danimihardja, S. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta, pp 3, 66-70.

Baudoin, J.-P, O. Rocha, J. Degreef, A. Maquet and L. Guarino., 2004, Ecogeography, Demography, Diversity and Conservation of Phaseolus lunatus L. in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Systematic and Ecogeographic Studies on Crop Genepools 12, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy.

Baudoin, J.P., 2006, Phaseolus lunatus L. In: brink,M. & Belay, G. (Editors). Plant Resources of Tropical Africa (PROTA) 1: Cereals and Pulses/Cereals et legumes secs. (CD-Rom). PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands, viewed in September 2015, from www.prota4u.org

Beyra A. and Artiles G.R., 2004, Revision Taxonomica De Los Generos Phaseolus Y Vigna (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) En Cuba. Anales Del Jardin Botanico de Madrid. 61:135-154.

 CSSA (Crop Science Society of America), 2010, ‘Lima Beans Domesticated Twice’, in Science daily 1 Sep. 2010, Viewed in August 2016, from http:www.sciencedaily. com/releases/2010/08/100831222310.htm.

Debouck, D.G., 1994, Beans (Phaseolus spp.) Neglected Crops 1492 from a Different Perspective, Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations Rome, 26: 54 – 61.

Freytag, G.F & Debouck, D.G., 2002, Taxonomy, Distribution and Ecology of the Genus Phaseolus (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) in North America, Mexico and Cental America. Sida, Botanical Miscellary. Botanical Research Institute Texas. no. 23.

Gepts, P., 2012, Genetic Rosources of Phaseolus Beans: Their Maintenance, Domestication, Evolution and Utilization: Current Plant Science and Biotechnology in Agriculture. Springer science & business media. 6, 152-155. 

Gepts, P., 2014, Domestications of Phaseolus Beans and Their Importance for Conservation and Genetic Improvement, viewed in April 2015, from http://www.ias.csic.es/grainlegumesmagazine/legum_perspect_2.pdf.

IBPGR (International Board for Plant Genetic Resources), 1982, Lima Bean Descriptors. IBPGR Secretariat. Rome.

Kole, E.T.M., 2014, Morphological and Genetic Characterisation of Some Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) Cultivars and Their Nodulating Rhizobia. Thesis. Ghana

Koten, B.B., Soetrisno, R. D., Ngadiyono, N., dan Soewignyo, B., 2013, Penampilan Produksi Hijauan Hasil Tumpangsari Arbila (Phaseolus lunatus) Berinokulum Rhizobium dan Sorgum (Sorghum bicolor) pada Jarak Tanam Arbila dan Jumlah Baris Sorgum. Sains Peternakan. 11 (1): 26-33.

Kyeremateng, D.O., 2015, Determination of Compositional Characteristics, Functional Properties and Cluster Analysis of Lima Bean Accessions (Phaseolus Lunatus). Tesis. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Kumasi, Ghana. Department of Food Science and Technology College of Science

Lioi, L., 1994, Morphotype Relationships in Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) Deduced From Variation of The Evolutionary Marker Phaseolin. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 41:81-85

Martinez-Castillo, J., Zizumbo-Vilarreal, D., Perales-Rivera, H., and Colunga-Garciamarin, P., 2004, Intraspecific diversity and Morpho-Phenological variation in Phaseolus lunatus L. from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Economic Botany. 58(3):354-380.

Montero-Rojas, M., Ortiz, M., Beaver, J.S., and Siritunga, D., 2013, Genetic, Morphological and Cyanogen Content Evaluation of New Collection of Carribean Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) Landraces. Genetical Resources Crop Evolution. 60:2241–2252.

Mundita, I.W., 2013, Pemetaan Pangan Lokal di Pulau Sabu-Raijua, Rote-Ndao, Lembata dan Daratan Timor Barat (Kabupaten Kupang dan TTS). Perkumpulan Pikul & OXFAM. Kupang – NTT. Pp. 6, 61 – 67.

Onyilagha, J.C. and Islam, S., 2009, Flavonoids and Other Polyphenols of The Cultivated Spesies of The Genus Phaseolus. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 11: 231 – 234.

Purnomo, Daryono, B.S., and Sentori, M.B., 2015, Variability and Intraspecies Classification of Pumkin (Cucurbita moschata (Duch. ex Lam.) Duch. ex Poir.) Based on Morphological Characters. The 3rd International Conference on Biological Science. Knowledge life science. 2:286-293

Purwanti, E., Prihanta, W., 2017, Morphological Diversity and Germplasm Conservation Strategies of Phaseolus lunatus L in East Java. The 4th International Conference the Community Development in ASEAN. 238 – 247.

Santos, J.O., Gomes, R.L.F., Lopes, A.C.A., Silva, S.C.C.C., Bastos, E.M., Costa, E.M.R., 2010, Genetic Divergence for Physical and Chemical Characters of Seeds in Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) Annual Report of the Bean Improvement Cooperative. 53:178-179.

Sari, N., Purnomo, Daryono, B.S., Suryadiantina and Setyowati, M., 2016, Variation and Intraspecies Classification of Edible Canna (Canna indica L.)  Based on Morphological Characters. AIP Conference Proceedings. 1744, 020041.

Silva, R. N. O., Burle, M. L., Padua, J. G., Lopes, Â. C. de Almeida Lopes3, Gomes, Regina, L. F. G., and Martínez-Castillo, J. Phenotypic diversity in lima bean landraces cultivated in Brazil, using the Ward-MLM strategy. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research. 77(1): 35 – 40.

Smýkal, P., Coyne, C. J., Ambrose, M.J., Maxted, N., Schaefer,H., Blair,M.W.,  Berger, J., Greene,S.L., Nelson, M.N., Besharat, N., Vymyslický, T., Toker, C., Saxena,R.K., Roorkiwal, M., Pandey, M.K., Jinguo Hu, J., Li, Y.H., Wang, L.X., Guo, Y., Qiu, L.J.,  Redden, R.J. and Varshney, R.K., 2015, Legume Crops Phylogeny and Genetic Diversity for Science and Breeding. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 34:1-3, 43-104.

Susandarini, R., Subandiah, S., Rugayah, Daryono, B.S., Nugroho, L. H., 2013, Assessment of Taxonomic Affinity of Indonesian Pummelo (Citrus Maxima (Burm.)  Merr.) Based on Morphological Characters. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences. 8 (3):182-190

Yaguiu, A., Machado-Neto, N. B., and Cardoso, V. J. M., 2003, Grouping of Brazilian Accesses of Lima Beans (Phaseolus lunatus L.) According To SDS-PAGE Patterns and Morphological Characters. Maringa. 25(1):7-12.

Zoro Bi I. Maquet A., Baudoin JP., 2003, Population Genetic Structure of Wild Phaseolus lunatus (Fabaceae) with Special References to Population Sizes. American Journal of Botany. 90 (6):897-904.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jtbb.42547

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 581 | views : 448

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Tropical Biodiversity and Biotechnology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Editoral address:

Faculty of Biology, UGM

Jl. Teknika Selatan, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia

ISSN: 2540-9581 (online)