Cytotoxic Evaluation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Root Extract on Chromosome Aberrations in Human Lymphocytes In vitro

https://doi.org/10.22146/jtbb.70543

Somkid Chaiphech(1), Isara Patawang(2), Sumalee Phimphan(3), Sukhonthip Ditcharoen(4), Chatmongkon Suwannapoom(5), Alongklod Tanomtong(6*)

(1) Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand; Research Group on Toxic Substances in Livestock and Aquatic Animals, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
(2) Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50000; Center of Excellence in Bioresources for Agriculture, Industry and Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50000 Thailand
(3) Biology program, Faculty of Science and Technology, Phetchabun Rajabhat University, Phetchabun 67000, Thailand
(4) Division of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi Khlong 6, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12110, Thailand
(5) Department of Fishery, School of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Phayao, 56000,
(6) Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002; Research Group on Toxic Substances in Livestock and Aquatic Animals, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This study aimed to investigate chromosomal aberrations of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL) root extract in human lymphocytes in vitro. Human whole blood was cultured in medium solution that treated with distilled water, 20% DMSO, extract of EL roots at the concentration of 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 µg/mL (extracted with distilled water and ethanol), and nontreated (blank: only culture medium and whole blood). All experiments were cultured for 72 hours in the 37°C incubator. The effects of EL roots extract on cytotoxicity were compared with the control groups including the blank, distilled water, and 20% DMSO. This study found that EL root extract significantly decreased metaphase cell number and increased chromosome aberrations dose dependent manner (p<0.01). The 7 types of chromosome aberration that were observed consisted of dicentric chromosome, single chromatid breaks, isochromatid break, isochromatid gap, single chromatid gap, fragmentation, and deletion. The dicentric chromosome was the most common chromosomal aberrations type that was treated with EL root extract both distilled water and ethanol. Moreover, the ethanolic extract of EL root was more effective to stimulate chromosome aberrations compared to the water extract of EL root (the deletion and fragmentation were not found in the water extract of EL root). This study demonstrated that the phytochemicals of EL root extract had cytotoxicity effect (decreased metaphase cells and increase cells death) and genotoxic effect (increased chromosomal aberrations. The use of EL root crude extract with distilled water is therefore safer for cells. However, when EL is used at high levels, it may lead to the inhibition of cell division process and cause side effects (toxicity). EL extracts consist of various phytochemicals with different properties and dosages, thus more studies should be conducted on the effect of those substances on cytotoxicity, especially their effects on genotoxicity humans.

 


Keywords


biotechnology; Cell biology

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jtbb.70543

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