Bycatch of Amboina Box Turtle (Cuora amboinensis) by Fishermen in Rawa Aopa, Southeast Sulawesi

Harnum Nurazizah(1), Mirza Dikari Kusrini(2*), Ani Mardiastuti(3)

(1) Department of Forest Resources Conservation & Ecotourism, Faculty of Forestry and Environment, IPB University
(2) Department of Forest Resources Conservation & Ecotourism, Faculty of Forestry and Environment, IPB University
(3) Department of Forest Resources Conservation & Ecotourism, Faculty of Forestry and Environment, IPB University
(*) Corresponding Author


Rawa Aopa is a permanent swamp ecosystem that serves as one of the suitable habitats for amboina box turtles (Cuora amboinensis). Some of the area is part of a national park (Rawa Aopa Watumohai National Park) and is designated as a traditional zone for fishing activities, where local fishermen sometimes reported accidental catch C. amboinensis in their fishing gear. The aims of this study were to record the existence of C. amboinensis bycatch, size and age structure of bycatch, characteristic of fishing activity, and to discuss the conservation implication of bycatch.  The number of bycatch was recorded by direct observation of 7 selected fishermen in 14 days. The C. amboinensis caught accidentally were measured and weighed. A total of 38 individuals of C. amboinensis were accidentally caught by fishermen during the study, having a size ranged of 7.4 to 18.5 cm (juveniles, young adults, and old adults; no hatchling), and weighed 248 to 996 g. Based on sex, there was no significant difference between morphological size of male and female, although bycatch for females (59%) tend to be slightly higher than males (41%). Most of fishermen lives in Pewutaa Village and used bubu traps to catch fishes. C. amboinensis are the most common bycatch compared to other species. In order to minimize the impact of bycatch of the C. amboinensis by fishermen, we need to ensure that the turtle that accidentally trapped in the fishermen’s fishing gear would be released unharmedly to their habitat.



bycatch; fisherman; freshwater turtle; Sulawesi; trap

Full Text:



Aini, Y., Kusrini, M. D. & Prasetyo, L. B., 2019. Pemodelan Spasial Kesesuaian Habitat Kura Kura Ambon (Cuora amboinensis) di Taman Nasional Rawa Aopa Watumohai. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Konservasi dan Pemanfaatan Tumbuhan dan Satwaliar, pp.398–403.

Ardill, D., Itano, D. & Gillett, R., 2011. A Review of Bycatch and Discard Issues in Indian Ocean Tuna Fisheries. Quatres Bornes (MU): Indian Ocean Commission-Smart Fish Programme.

Aucoin, S. & Leon, Y. M., 2007. Preliminary data on hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) bycatch in an artisanal gillnet used near Jaragua National Park, Dominican Republic. Proceedings of the 60th Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute, pp.169-172.

[BTNRAW] Balai Taman Nasional Rawa Aopa Watumohai (ID). 2018. Buku Informasi Taman Nasional Rawa Aopa Watumohai. Konawe Selatan (ID): Balai Taman Nasional Rawa Aopa Watumohai.

Butler, J.R.A. et al., 2012. Integrating Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Fisheries Management in the Torres Strait, Australia: The Catalytic Role of Turtles and Dugong as Cultural Keystone Species. Ecology and Society, 17(4), art34. doi:10.5751/ES-05165-170434.

Cairns, N.A., 2013. Mitigation of freshwater turtle bycatch and mortality associated with inland commercial fyke-net fisheries [thesis]. Ontario (CA): Carleton University.

Cota, M. et al., 2020. Cuora amboinensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T5958A3078812. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T5958A3078812.en. Accessed on 07 January 2022.

Dudley, R.G., 2004. The Fishery Of Danau Sentarum. Borneo Research Bulletin, 31, pp.261–306.

Fauzi, M.A., Hamidy, A. & Kurniawan, N., 2020. Harvesting trends of Amboina box turtles (Cuora amboinensis) seventeen years after listing in Appendix II CITES. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 21(3). doi:10.13057/biodiv/d210339.

Howard, K. et al., 2011. Cultural conservation of freshwater turtles in Barmah-Millewa Forest, 2010-11. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research, Department of Sustainability and Environment.

Ferronato, B.O. & Cruzado, G., 2013. Uses, beliefs, and conservation of turtles by Ashaninka indigenous people, Central Peru. Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 12(2), pp.308-313. doi: 10.2744/CCB-1025.1.

Fry, G.C., Milton, D.A. & Wassenbeirg, T.J., 2001. The reproductive biology and diet of sea snake bycatch of prawn trawling in northern Australia: characteristics important for assessing the impacts on populations. Pacific Conservation Sociology, 7, pp.55-73. doi: 10.1071/PC010055.

Karraker, N.E. et al., 2020. Non‐marine turtle plays important functional roles in Indonesian ecosystems. Ecology and Evolution, 10(18), pp.9613–9623. doi: 10.1002/ece3.6487.

[KLHK] Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan (ID)., 2018. Pengembangan pariwisata Balai Taman Nasional Rawa Aopa Watumohai dengan pemkab Konawe Selatan [Internet]. [diunduh 2019 Des 16]. Available on:

Larocque, S., 2011. Occurrence and mitigation of freshwater turtle bycatch and mortality associated with inland commercial hoop net fisheries [thesis], Ontario (CA): Carleton University.

Lucchetti, A., Vasapollo, C. & Virgili, M., 2017. An interview-based approach to assess sea turtle bycatch in Italian waters. Peer J., pp.1-25. doi: 10.7717/peerj.3151.

Mackay, A.I. & Knuckey, I.A., 2013. Mitigation of Marine Mammal Bycatch in Gillnet Fisheries Using Acoustic Devices, Literature Review, Australia (AU): Australian Fisheries Management Authority.

Makmur, S. et al., 2021. Aktivitas Perikanan Tangkap di Danau Tondano Kabupaten Minahasa Sulawesi Utara. Publikasi Penelitian Terapan dan Kebijakan, 4(1), pp.43–50. doi: 10.46774/pptk.v4i1.343.

McCord, W. P. & Philippen, H. D., 1998. A New Subspecies of Box Turtle, Cuora amboinensis lineata, from Northern Myanmar (Burma), with Remarks on the Distribution and Geographic Variation of the Species. Reptile Hobbyist, pp 51-58

Midwood, J.D. et al., 2015. Bycatch mortality can cause extirpation in four freshwater turtle species. Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 25, pp.71-80. doi: 10.1002/aqc.2475.

Moore, J. E. et al., 2010. An interview-based approach to assess marine mammal and sea turtle captures in artisanal fisheries. Biological Conservation, 143, pp.795-805. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2009.12.023.

Muliani, M., Asriyana, A. & Ramli, M., 2021. Preferensi Habitat Ikan Gabus [Channa striata (Bloch 1793)] di Perairan Rawa Aopa, Sulawesi Tenggara. Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia, 26(4), pp.546–554. doi:10.18343/jipi.26.4.546.

Nguyen, V. M. et al., 2013. Perspectives of fishers on turtle bycatch and conservation strategies in a small-scale inland commercial fyke net fishery. Endangered Species Research, 22, pp.11-22. doi:10.3354/ESR00530.

Novrizal et al., 2018. Hasil tangkapan sampingan (bycatch dan discard) pada alat tangkap gombang (filter net) sebagai ancaman bagi kelestarian sumberdaya perikanan. Marine Fisheries. 9(2), pp.221-233. doi: 10.29244/jmf.9.2.221-233.

Nugroho, H.A., Rosyid, A. & Fitri A.D.P., 2015. Analisis indeks keanekaragaman, indeks dominansi, dan proporsi hasil tangkapan non target pada jaring arad modifikasi di perairan Kabupaten Kendal. Journal of Fisheries Resources Utilization Management and Technology, 4(1), pp.1-11.

Putri, I.A.S.L.P., 2016. Keragaman Burung Air di Rawa Aopa, Taman Nasional Rawa Aopa Watumohai. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Lahan Basah, pp.66–73.

Ridha, M. A. et al., 2021. The Amphibians And Reptiles Of Rawa Aopa Watumohai National Park, Southeast Sulawesi. Media Konservasi, 26(2), pp.128–138. doi: 10.29244/medkon.26.2.128-138.

Read, A.J., Drinker, P. & Northridge, S., 2006. Bycatch of marine mammals in US and global fisheries. Conservation Biology, 20(1), pp.163–169. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00338.x.

Thornton, T.F. & Scheer, A.M., 2012. Collaborative Engagement of Local and Traditional Knowledge and Science in Marine Environments: A Review. Ecology and Society, 17(3), art8. doi:10.5751/ES-04714-170308.

Schoppe, S., 2008. Science in Cites: The Biology and Ecology of the Southeast Asian Box Turtle and Its Uses and Trade in Malaysia, Selangor (MY): TRAFFIC Southeast Asia.

Schoppe, S., 2009. Status, trade dynamics and management of the Southeast Asian Box Turtle Cuora amboinensis in Indonesia (p. 49), TRAFFIC Southeast Asia.

Sugiarto, D.P., 2007. Strategi konservasi Rawa Aopa, Sulawesi Tenggara berkolaborasi dengan masyarakat lokal selamatkan ekosistem rawa. Warta Konservasi, 15(3), pp 4-5.

Wallace, B.P. et al., 2010. Global patterns of marine turtle bycatch. Conservation Letters. 20, pp.1-12. doi:10.1111/j.1755-263X.2010.00105.x.

Widagti, N., 2007. Cuora amboinensis Daudin 1802 (Testudines: Geomydidae) di kawasan dilindungi (Taman Nasional Rawa Aopa Watumohai Sulawesi Tenggara) dan di kawasan eksploitasi (Kecamatan Kota Bangun, Kabupaten Kutai Kartanegara, Kalimantan Timur): karakteristik morfologi, kelimpahan, dan pemanenan [tesis], Depok (ID): Universitas Indonesia.

Wulandari, K., Asriyana & Halili, 2018. Struktur komunitas ikan di perairan Rawa Aopa Kecamatan Angata Kabupaten Konawe Selatan Provinsi Sulawesi Tenggara. Jurnal Manajemen Sumber Daya Perairan, 3(1), pp.75–81.

Zappes, C.A. et al., 2016. Traditional knowledge identifies causes of bycatch on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Montagu 1821): An ethnobiological approach. Ocean & Coastal Management, 120, pp.160–169. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.12.006.

Zwahlen, R., 1992. The Ecology of Rawa Aopa, a Peat-swamp in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Environmental Conservation, 19(03), pp.226–234. doi:10.1017/S0376892900031027.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1650 | views : 951


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Biodiversity and Biotechnology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Editoral address:

Faculty of Biology, UGM

Jl. Teknika Selatan, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia

ISSN: 2540-9581 (online)