Management Strategies of Mangrove Biodiversity and the Role of Sustainable Ecotourism in Achieving Development Goals

Prima Wahyu Titisari(1*), Elfis Elfis(2), Indry Chahyana(3), Nadiatul Janna(4), Haliza Nurdila(5), Ranti Sri Widari(6)

(1) Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Islam Riau, Jl. Kaharuddin Nasution No. 113, Marpoyan, Pekanbaru 24284, Riau, Indonesia
(2) Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Islam Riau, Jl. Kaharuddin Nasution No. 113, Marpoyan, Pekanbaru 24284, Riau, Indonesia
(3) Magister of Biomangement, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl, Ganesa No.10, Bandung 40132, West Java, Indonesia
(4) Universitas Islam Riau
(5) Universitas Islam Riau
(6) Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Islam Riau, Jl. Kaharuddin Nasution No. 113, Marpoyan, Pekanbaru 24284, Riau, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Mangrove forest is a unique and vulnerable ecosystem. This ecosystem serves both ecological and economic purposes. The Siak government has begun to develop the Sungai Apit District mangrove area, which has potential. The goal of this research was to develop a sustainable mangrove ecotourism strategy through five research goals: (1) identification of mangrove species diversity; (2) identification of ecotourism supply; (3) identification of ecotourism demand, (4) development strategy of mangrove ecotourism, and (5) development of the potential for mangrove ecotourism to increase the SDGs value. This research was conducted from January to April 2020. The supply and demand of natural tourism objects and attractions were assessed using ADO-ODTWA criteria analysis. The IFAS/EFAS and SWOT analysis was used to develop a mangrove ecotourism development strategy based on the valuation of ADO-ODTWA aspects. The contribution of mangrove ecotourism to UNESCO’s SDG indicators for sustainable development. According to research, there are 35 species of mangroves on the Sungai Apit coast. The outcomes demonstrated that the feasibility level of tourism attractions (204 points) and supporting elements (472 points) met high-level criteria. It indicated that the area had a high potential for development as a mangrove ecotourism area. Based on IFAS/EFAS, SWOT analysis and the grand strategy selection matrix, the position of mangrove ecotourism strategy was in Quadrant I (Strength-Opportunity). The strategy that could be developed included (1) developing special interest mangrove ecotourism product; (2) increasing facilities; (3) improving the quality of human resources; (4) developing a network on the website and (5) increasing coordination with the Government. By implementing ecotourism strategy, the SDGs can be achieved, including: no poverty (goal 1); decent work and economic growth (goal 8); climate action (goal 13); life below water (goal 14); life on land (goal 15); and partnerships to achieve goals (goal 17).



ecotourism; management strategy; Mangrove; SDGs

Full Text:



Abdullah, M. et al., 2013. Local community participatory process and intervention procedure in mangrove ecotourism of Marudu Bay, Sabah. Pertanika Journal Tropical Agriculture Science, 36, pp.173-180.

Abdullah, K., Said, A.M., & Omar, D., 2014. Community-based conservation in managing mangrove rehabilitation in Perak and Selangor. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 153, pp.121-131.

Adegboyega et al., 2019. Evaluation of unsustainable land use/land cover change on ecosystem services in coastal area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Applied Geomatics, 11(1), pp.97-110.

Arkwright, D. & Kaomaneng, I.S., 2018. Mangrove ecotourism development on Kakaralamo Island North Halmahera: Community perception, participation and development strategies. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 175(1), pp.22-32. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/1/012232.

Arriagada, R.A. et al., 2012. Dopayments for environmental services affect forest cover? a farm-level evaluation from Costa Rica. Land Econ., 88(2), pp.382–399.

Aye, N.W. et al., 2019. Contribution of mangrove forest to the livelihood of local communities in Ayeyarwaddy region, Myanmar. Forest, 10(5), 414. doi: 10.3390/f10050414.

Basyuni, M. et al., 2018. Developing community-based mangrove management through eco-tourism in North Sumatra, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 126, pp.12-19. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/126/1/012109.

Boo, E., 1990. Ecotourism: The Potentials and Pitfalls, Washington, DC: World Wildlife Fund.

Boo, E., 1992. The Ecotourism Boom: Planning for Development and Management, Washington, DC: Wildlands and Human Needs, World Wildlife Fund.

Brander, M.L. et al., 2012. Ecosystem service values for mangroves in Southeast Asia: A meta-analysis and value transfer application. Ecosistem Services, 1(1), pp.62-69.

Cheia, G., 2013. Ecotourism: Definition and Concepts. Journal of Tourism,15, pp.46-59.

Elliott, J., 2012. An Introduction to sustainable development. 4thed. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge,

Fennell, D.A., 2015. Ecotourism-fourt edition, New York.

Fistiningrum, W. & Harini, R., 2021. The impacts of mangrove ecotourism management on the socio-economic conditions of people in kulonprogo regency. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 683, 012116. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/683/1/012116

Goh, H.C., 2015. Nature and community-based tourism (CBT) for poverty alleviation: A case study of Lower Kinabatangan, East Malaysia. Geografia-Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 11(3), pp.42-52.

Hakim, L., Siswanto, D. & Makagoshi, N., 2017. Mangrove conservation in East Java: The ecotourism development perspective. Journal of Tropical Life Science, 7(3), pp.277-285.

Hussin, R, Mohd. Yassir, S. & Kunjuraman, V., 2014. Potential of homestay tourism based on seaweed cultivation from the views of seaweed cultivators in district of Semporna Sabah, East Malaysia. SHS Web of Conferences, 12(01005), pp.1-11.

Jaafar, M. & Maideen, S.A., 2012. Ecotourism-related products and activities, and the economic sustainability of small and medium island chalets. Tourism Management, 33(3), pp.683-691.

Jaafar, M. et al., 2015. Development of ecotourism products in Kilim Geopark based on tourist perceptions. Journal of Sustainability Science and Management, 10(1), pp.1-18.

Kathiresan, K., 2012. Importance of Mangrove Ecosystem. International Journal of Marine Science, 2(10), pp.70-89.

Kenny, L., 2017. The Road Less Travelled: A Case Study on Ecotourism and Sustainable Developmentinthe Sundarbans, Bangladesh. Thesis Department of Sociology. Lund University.

Lindberg, K., 1991. Policies for Maximising Nature Tourism’s Ecological and Economic Benefits, Washington, DC : World Resources Institute.

Liu J et al., 2014. The role of social capital in encouraging residents’ pro-environmental behaviours in community-based ecotourism. Tourism Management, 41, pp.190-201.

Malik, A., Fensholt, R. & Mertz, O., 2015. Mangrove exploitation effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Biodiversity and Conservation, 24(14), pp.3543-3557.

Manafe G., Kaho, M.R. & Risamasu, F. 2016. Estimasi Biomassa Permukaan dan Stok Karbon pada Tegakan Pohon Avicennia marina dan Rhizophora mucronata di Perairan Pesisir Oebelo Kabupaten Kupang. Jurnal Bumi Lestari, 16(2), pp.163-17

Masud, M.M. et al., 2017. Community-based ecotourism management for sustainable development of marine protected areas in Malaysia. Ocean & Coastal Management, 136, pp.104-112.

Mojiol, A.R. et al., 2016. Contribution of mangrove forest and socio-economic development of local communities in Kudat district, Sabah Malaysia. International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Plantation, 2, 122-129.

Muktaf, Z.M. & Zulfiana, E.R. 2018. Persepsi Wisatawan Asing terhadap Wisata Indonesia. Cakrawala Jurnal Penelitian Sosial, 7(1), pp.83-106.

Musa, F., Fozi, N.M., Hamdan, D.D.M., 2020. Coastal communities’ willingness to pay for mangrove ecotourism in Marudu Bay, Sabah, Malaysia. Journal of Sustainability Science and Management, (15)4, pp.130-140.

Nobi, M.N. et al., 2021. Economic valuation of tourism of the Sundarban Mangroves, Bangladesh. Journal of Ecology and Natural Environment, 13(4), pp.100-109.

Perlindungan Hutan danKonservasiAlam (PHKA), 2003. Pedoman Analisis Daerah Operasi Obyek dan Daya Tarik Wisata Alam (ADO-ODTWA). Direktorat Jenderal Perlindungan Hutan dan Konservasi Alam. Bogor.

Purnamasari, R, Suprapto, D. & Purwanti, F., 2015. Pengembangan Ekowisata Mangrove Desa Karangsong, Kabupaten Indramayu. Diponogoro Journal of Maquares, 4(4), pp.146-154.

Ramli, F., 2018. Factors affecting user’s perception towards conservation of biodiversity in Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve (MMFR), Perak, Malaysia. International Journal of Business and Society, 19(SI), pp.26-36.

Sedarmayanti, 2005. Membangun Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata (Bunga Rampai Tulisan Pariwisata), Bandung (ID): Penerbit Mandar Maju.

Sidik et al., 2018. Mangrove conservation for climate change mitigation in Indonesia. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 9(5).

Situmorang, R.O., 2018. Social capital in managing mangrove ecotourism by the Muara Bambai community. Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research, 5(1), pp.21-34.

Sofian, A. et al., 2019. Ecosystem services-based mangrove management strategies in Indonesia: a review. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation, 12(1), pp.151-166.

Susilo, H., Takahashi, Y. & Yabe, M., 2017. The opportunity cost of labour for valuing mangrove restoration in Mahakam Delta, Indonesia. Sustainability, 9(12), 2169. doi, 10.3390/su9122169.

Tracey, L.C. et al., 2017. Achieving the national development agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) through investment in ecological infrastructure: A case study of South Africa. Ecosystem Services, 27, pp.253–260.

Wirakusuma, R.M., 2014. Analisis Karakter Wisatawan Mancanegara terhadap Fasilitas Wisata Kawasan Prawirotaman. Jurnal Pariwisata, 1(1), pp.42-52.

Yeo, S.C., Noor, A.G.A. & Lee, P.C., 2013. The estimation of economic benefits of urban trees using contingent valuation method in Tasik Perdana, Kuala Lumpur. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, 36(1), pp.99-114.

Yoeti, O.A., 2008. Ekonomi Pariwisata: Introduksi, Informasi, dan Implementasi, Jakarta (ID): Kompas.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1348 | views : 1133


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Biodiversity and Biotechnology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Editoral address:

Faculty of Biology, UGM

Jl. Teknika Selatan, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia

ISSN: 2540-9581 (online)