Medicinal Plants Diversity Used by Balinese in Buleleng Regency, Bali

Putri Sri Andila(1*), I Gede Tirta(2), Tri Warseno(3), Sutomo Sutomo(4)

(1) Research Centre for Plant Conservation, Botanic Garden and Forestry - National Research and Innovation Agency, Indonesia
(2) Research Centre for Plant Conservation, Botanic Garden and Forestry - National Research and Innovation Agency, Indonesia
(3) Research Center for Biosystematic and Evolution - National Research and Innovation Agency
(4) Research Centre for Ecology and Ethnobiology -National Research and Innovation Agency, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


The Lontar Usada Bali is a collection of the science of traditional medicine recorded in the lontar leaves. It contains information about the diversity of medicinal plants and treatment procedures used by Balinese for generations. However, most of the information stored in the lontars is only known by the Balians (Traditional Healers). The aim of the study was to investigate and document the diversity of medicinal plants known by Balians in Buleleng Regency, Bali Province, Indonesia. Direct interview with Balians, combined with purposive sampling (for the usada plants), was used in this study and conducted in August-September 2022. The data obtained comprised plant species, habitat, habitus, local names, plant parts used, and how they were used. The data were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively using diagrams, graphs, and tables and measured by the use-value index. Sixty-five species and 37 families of plants were recorded as a medicinal plant. The most widely used plant families by Balians were Zingiberaceae, Poaceae, Rutaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, and Malvaceae. In most cases, leaves were used, followed by tubers, fruits, and other parts. Maceration and powder or mushy were the primary modes of making herbal medicine, and external application was the most common method of drug administration. Most medicinal plants were obtained from the home garden, taken from nature, or bought in the market. Several diseases often treated by Balians were convulsions, itching, cramps, headache, black magic, stroke, herpes and tumor/cancer. This research is important to complete the ethnobotanical data on the diversity of medicinal plants in Bali. This data is important information for the development of new drugs and must be maintained for sustainability.



Balians, Buleleng Regency, Ethnobotany, Lontar Usada, Medicinal Plants

Full Text:



Andila, P.S. et al., 2021. Research Article Ethnobotanical and Phytochemical Study of Bayur (Pterospermum javanicum Jungh.) on Sasak Tribe around Mount Rinjani National Park, West Lombok as a Conservation Effort. Journal of Tropical Biodiversity and Biotechnology, 6(1), pp.2-11. doi: 10.22146/jtbb.61008

Arsana, I.N., 2019. Keragaman Tanaman Obat dalam Lontar “Taru Pramana” dan Pemanfaatannya untuk Pengobatan Tradisional Bali. Jurnal Kajian Bali, 9(1), pp.241—262.

Assefa, T. et al., 2019. The Role of Medicinal Plants in Traditional Medicine in Adwa District, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Asian Plant Research Journal, 3(3-4), pp.1-11. doi: 10.9734/APRJ/2019/v3i3-430067.

Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink Jr, R.C., 1965. Flora of Java (Spermatophytes only), Groningen: N.V.P. Noordhoff.

Bachiri, L. et al., 2015. Etude ethnobotanique de quelques lavandes marocaines spontanese. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 9(3), pp.1308-1318. doi:10.4314/ijbcs.v9i3.16.

Belgica, T.H.R., Suba, M.D. & Alejandro, G.J.D., 2021. Quantitative ethnobotanical study of medicinal flora used by local inhabitants in selected Barangay of Malinao, Albay, Philippines. Biodiversitas, 22(7), pp.2711-2721. doi: 10.13057/biodiv/d220720.

Budiarti, M. et al., 2020. The use of antimalarial plants as traditional treatment in Papua Island, Indonesia. Heliyon, 6(12), pp.1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05562.

Chaachouay, N. et al., 2019. Ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies of medicinal and aromatic plants used in the treatment of metabolic diseases in the Moroccan Rif. Heliyon, 5(2019), e02191, pp. 1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02191.

Chen, S.L. et al., 2016. Conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants: problems, progress, and prospects. Chinese Medicine, 11(37), pp.1-10. doi: 10.1186/s13020-016-0108-7.

Damayanti, R., Umami, S.S. & Suhirman., 2021. The Ethnobotany Study of Medicinal Plants in Lombok Island. Biota, Biologi dan Pendidikan Biologi, 14(2), pp.56-73. doi: 10.20414/jb.v14i2.386.

Elfrida, Tarigan, N.B. & Suwardi, A.B. 2021. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by community in Jambur Labu Village, East Aceh, Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 22(7), pp.2893-2900. doi: 10.13057/biodiv/d220741.

Grass, A. et al., 2021. The Role of Botanical Families in Medicinal Ethnobotany: A Phylogenetic Perspective. Plants, 10(163), pp.1-17. doi: 10.3390/ plants10010163.

Harouak, H. et al., 2018. Ethnobotanical survey of plants used in treatment of oral diseases in the city of Meknes, Morocco, International Journal of Herbal Medicine, 6(6), pp.46–49.

Hiben, M.G. et al., 2019. Ethnomedicine and ethnobotany of Maerua subcordata (Gilg) DeWolf. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 6(23), pp.1-8. doi: 10.1186/s42779-019-0032-4.

Hilonga, S. et al., 2018. Trade of wild-harvested medicinal plant species in local markets of Tanzania and its implications for conservation. South Africa Journal of Botany, 122, pp.214–224. doi: 10.1016/j.sajb.2018.08.012.

Hussain, W. et al., 2018. The quantitative study of medicinal plants used by the communities residing in Koh-e-Safaid Range, northern Pakistani-Afghan borders. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 14(30), pp.1-18. doi: 10.1186/s13002-018-0229-4.

Jadid, N. et al., 2020. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Tengger tribe in Ngadisari village, Indonesia. PLoS ONE, 15(7), e0235886. doi:

Kachmar, M.R. et al., 2021. Traditional Knowledge of Medicinal Plants Used in the Northeastern Part of Morocco. Evid based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2021, 6002949, pp.1-20. doi: 10.1155/2021/6002949.

Kovács, Z. et al., 2021. Review Article: Ex situ conservation in botanical gardens – challenges and scientific potential preserving plant biodiversity. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 49(2), pp. 1-22. doi:10.15835/nbha49212334.

Luziatelli, G. et al., 2010, Asháninka medicinal plants: a case study from the native community of Bajo Quimiriki, Junín, Peru. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 6(21), pp.1-123.

Merouane, A. et al., 2022. A Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants consumed during holy month of Ramadan in Chlef region, Algeria. Ethnobotany Research and Applications, 23(29), pp.1-14.

Mwangi, J.G., Njoka, J.T. & Spaling, H. 2021. The cultural beliefs, values and utilization of East Africa Sandalwood Osyris lanceolata Hochst. & Steud. (1832) in and around Chyulu Hills Ecosystem, Kenya. Ethnobotany Research and Applications, 22(12), pp.1-18.

Najem, M., Ibijbijen, J. & Nassiri, L. 2019. Quantitative ethnobotanical study of poisonous medicinal plants used in the traditional pharmacopoeia of the central Middle Atlas region: Morocco. Ethnobotany Research and Applications, 18(36), pp.1–17.

Najem, M. et al., 2020. Oral disorders and ethnobotanical treatments: A field study in the central Middle Atlas (Morocco). Heliyon, 6(8), e04707. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04707.

Nguyen, T.S. et al., 2019. Regular Research Article Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants in traditional markets of Son La province, Vietnam. Forest and Society, 3(2), pp.171-192. doi: 10.24259/fs.v3i2.6005.

Oktavia, G.A.E., Darma, I.D.P. & Sujarwo, W., 2017. Studi Etnobotani Tumbuhan Obat Di Kawasan Sekitar Danau Buyan-Tamblingan, Bali. Buletin Kebun Raya, 20(1), pp.1-16.

Pandiangan, D. et al., 2019. Diversity of medicinal plants and their uses by the Sanger tribe of Sangihe Islands, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 20(2), pp. 621-631. doi: 10.13057/biodiv/d200301.

Posthouwer, C. et al., 2018. The quantitative market survey of non-woody plants sold at Kariakoo Market in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 222, pp.280-287. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.04.039.

Rahayu, Y.Y.S. & Rosleine T.A.D., 2020. Factors affecting the use of herbal medicines in the universal health coverage system in Indonesia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 260, 112974. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.112974.

Shao, H. et al., 2021. In situ conservation of traditional vegetable diversity in Wa homegardens in southwestern Yunnan, China. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 17(54), pp.1-13. doi:10.1186/s13002-021-00479-4.

Steenis, C.G.G.J., 2010. Flora Pegunungan Jawa, Jakarta: LIPI Press.

Sujarwo, W. & Caneva, G. 2015. Ethnobotanical Study of Cultivated Plants in Home Gardens of Traditional Villages in Bali (Indonesia). Human Ecology, 43, pp.769–778. doi: 10.1007/s10745-015-9775-8.

Sun, Q. et al., 2022. Differences in Ecological Traits between Plants Grown In Situ and Ex Situ and Implications for Conservation. Sustainability, 14(9), pp. 1-15. doi: 10.3390/su14095199.

Tamokou, J.D.D., Mbaveng, A.T. & Kuete, V., 2017. Antimicrobial Activities of African Medicinal Spices and Vegetables. In Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa. Academic Press, pp. 207-237. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-809286-6.00008-X.

Tengah, I.G.P. 1995. Studi tentang Inventarisasi, Determinasi dan Cara Penggunaan Tanaman Obat pada ”Lontar Usada” di Bali. Jakarta: Puslitbang Farmasi, Balitbang Kesehatan, Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia.

Tungmunnithum, D. et al., 2018. Flavonoids and Other Phenolic Compounds from Medicinal Plants for Pharmaceutical and Medical Aspects: An Overview. Medicines (Basel), 5(93), pp.1-19. doi: 10.3390/medicines5030093.

Yudiyanto, Hakim, N. & Wakhidah, A.Z., 2022. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants from Lampung Tribe around Way Kambas National Park, Indonesia. Nusantara Bioscience, 14(1), pp.84-94. doi: 10.13057/nusbiosci/n140111.

Zenderland, J. et al., 2019. The Use of Use Value: Quantifying Importance in Ethnobotany. Economic Botany, 73, pp.293–303. doi: 10.1007/s12231-019-09480-1.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1120 | views : 1530


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tropical Biodiversity and Biotechnology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Editoral address:

Faculty of Biology, UGM

Jl. Teknika Selatan, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia

ISSN: 2540-9581 (online)