Anti-hypercholesterolemia, Anti-atherogenic, and Anti-hypertension Effects of Red Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) in Rats Induced by High Fat and Fructose Diet

https://doi.org/10.22146/jtbb.75914

Alim El-Hakim(1), Sunarti Sunarti(2), Lisna Hidayati(3), Slamet Widiyanto(4*)

(1) Undergraduate Student Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia 55281
(2) Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia 55281
(3) Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia 55281
(4) Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Metabolic syndrome is associated with abnormalities of lipid levels in the blood such as hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemia conditions can increase the risk of atherosclerosis and hypertension. Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) is a plant that contains high antioxidants. Beetroot has the potency to be used as a functional food that can reduce the potential for atherosclerosis and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of beetroot-enriched feed on the cholesterol level, atherogenic index and blood pressure of rats (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769) induced by high fat and fructose diet. As many as 25 rats were divided into control, hyperlipidemia, and three treatment groups. The hyperlipidemia and treatment groups were induced to become hyperlipidemia using AIN93-M modified high fat and fructose feed for 8 weeks. The treatment groups were followed by intervention with 6, 9, and 12% beetroot enriched feed for 6 weeks. The feed was prepared by mixing beetroot flour in the pellets. Blood pressure, total cholesterol, and HDL level measurement was conducted after hyperlipidemia induction and after the intervention. The data analyzed with one-way ANOVA, DMRT, and T-Test. The results showed that 6% beetroot intervention have the highest increasing of HDL-cholesterol than other groups. The 9% beetroot intervention significantly decrease total cholesterol lower than normal baseline, and 12% beetroot intervention significantly decrease blood pressure than other groups. The atherogenic index of all treatment group was decreased. The 9% beetroot enriched feed was seen as an optimum dose to reduce total cholesterol, atherogenic index and blood pressure and increase HDL-cholesterol.

 


Keywords


atherogenic index, cholesterol, blood pressure, beetroot (Beta vulgaris)

Full Text:

PDF


References

Al-Dosari, M.S. et al., 2011. Effect of Beta vulgaris L. on cholesterol rich diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. Farmacia, 59(5), pp.669-677.

Aviram, M. et al., 2004. Pomegranate juice consumption for 3 years by patients with carotid artery stenosis reduces common carotid intima-media thickness, blood pressure and LDL oxidation. Clinical nutrition, 23(3), pp.423–433. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2003.10.002

Ayala, A., Muñoz, M.F. & Argüelles, S., 2014. Lipid Peroxidation: Production, Metabolism, and Signaling Mechanisms of Malondialdehyde and 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2014, 360438. doi: 10.1155/2014/360438

Ceclu, L. & Nistor, O., 2020. Red beetroot: Composition and health effects - A review. Journal of Nutritional Medicine and Diet Care, 6(043). doi: 10.23937/2572-3278.1510043

Clifford, T. et al., 2015. The Potential Benefits of Red Beetroot Supplementation in Health and Disease. Nutrients, 7(4), pp.2801–2822. doi: 10.3390/nu7042801

Chen, L. et al., 2021. Beetroot as a functional food with huge health benefits: Antioxidant, antitumor, physical function, and chronic metabolomics activity. Food science & nutrition, 9(11), pp.6406–6420. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.2577

Fardiaz, S., 2014. Mikrobiologi Pangan I. Universitas Terbuka

Gokhale, S.V. & Lele, S.S., 2014. Betalain Content and Antioxidant Activity of Beta vulgaris: Effect of Hot Air Convective Drying and Storage. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 38(1), pp.585–590. doi: 10.1111/jfpp.12006

Goldman, I.L. & Navazio, J.P., 2007. Table Beet. In Handbook of Plant Breeding. NY: Springer, pp.219–238. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-30443-4_7

‌Hannou, S.A. et al., 2018. Fructose metabolism and metabolic disease. The Journal of clinical investigation, 128(2), pp.545–555. doi: 10.1172/JCI96702.

John, R. & Singla, A., 2021. Functional Foods: Components, health benefits, challenges, and major projects. DRC Sustainable Future: Journal of Environment, Agriculture, and Energy, 2(1), pp.61-72. doi: 10.37281/drcsf/2.1.7

Kazemi, T. et al., 2018. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Atherogenic Indices in an Iranian Population: Birjand East of Iran. Clinical Medicine Insights: Cardiology, 20(12), 1179546818759286. doi: 10.1177/1179546818759286

Lee, J. H., Ozcelik, B. & Min, D. B., 2003. Electron donation mechanisms of β-carotene as a free radical scavenger. Journal of Food Science, 68(3), pp.861–865. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2003.tb08256.x

Lingling, C. et al., 2018. Preparation of Potato Whole Flour and Its Effects on Quality of Flour Products: A Review. Grain & Oil Science and Technology, 1(3), pp.145–150. doi: 10.3724/sp.j.1447.gost.2018.18037

Lozano, I. et al., 2016. High-fructose and high-fat diet-induced disorders in rats: impact on diabetes risk, hepatic and vascular complications. Nutrition & Metabolism, 13, 15. doi: 10.1186/s12986-016-0074-1

Lu, Y. et al., 2015. Lifestyle and Risk of Hypertension: Follow-Up of a Young Pre-Hypertensive Cohort. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 12(7), pp.605–612. doi:10.7150/ijms.12446

Murphy, A.J. et al., 2012. Anti-atherogenic mechanisms of high-density lipoprotein: Effects on myeloid cells. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, 1821(3), pp.513–521. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2011.08.003

Nahla, T.K., Wisam, S.U. & Tariq, N.M., 2018. Antioxidant Activities of Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) Extracts. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition: PJN, 17(10), pp.500–505. doi: 10.3923/pjn.2018.500.505

Nelson, R.H., 2013. Hyperlipidemia as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice, 40(1), pp.195–211. doi: 10.1016/j.pop.2012.11.003

Othman, Z.A. et al., 2019. Phenolic Compounds and the Anti-Atherogenic Effect of Bee Bread in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats. Antioxidants, 9(1), p.33. doi:10.3390/antiox9010033

Pan, J. et al., 2018. Prevalence of hyperlipidemia in Shanxi Province, China and application of Bayesian networks to analyse its related factors. Scientific Reports, 8, 3750. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-22167-2

Parik, T. et al., 1996. Evidence for Oxidative Stress in Essential Hypertension: Perspective for Antioxidant Therapy. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, 3(1), pp.49–54. doi: 10.1177/174182679600300107

Purnell, J.Q., 2018. Definitions, Classification, and Epidemiology of Obesity. In Endotext (Internet). South Dartmouth (MA): MDText.com, Inc.

Riccioni, G. et al., 2009. Relationship between plasma antioxidant concentrations and carotid intima-media thickness: the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerotic Disease in Manfredonia Study. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, 16(3), pp.351–357. doi:10.1097/HJR.0b013e328325d807

Rochlani, Y. et al., 2017. Metabolic syndrome: pathophysiology, management, and modulation by natural compounds. Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease, 11(8), pp.215–225. doi: 10.1177/1753944717711379

Santos-Sánchez, N.F. et al., 2019. Antioxidant compounds and their antioxidant mechanism. In Antioxidants. IntechOpen. doi: 10.5772/intechopen.85270

Scuteri, A. et al., 2005. The Metabolic Syndrome in Older Individuals: Prevalence and Prediction of Cardiovascular Events: The Cardiovascular Health Study. Diabetes Care, 28(4), pp.882–887. doi:10.2337/diacare.28.4.882

Singh, A. et al., 2015. Beetroot Juice Supplementation Increases High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol and Reduces Oxidative Stress in Physically Active Individuals. Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, 5(3), pp.179–185. doi: 10.6000/1927-5951.2015.05.03.2

Sorriento, D. et al., 2018. The Antioxidant Therapy: New Insights in the Treatment of Hypertension. Frontiers in Physiology, 9, 258. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00258

Stanhope, K.L., 2009. Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans. The Journal of clinical investigation, 119(5), pp.1322–1334. doi: 10.1172/JCI37385

Suanarunsawat, T. et al., 2011. Lipid-Lowering and Antioxidative Activities of Aqueous Extracts of Ocimum sanctum L. Leaves in Rats Fed with a High-Cholesterol Diet. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2011, 962025. doi: 10.1155/2011/962025.

Tedla, Y.G., & Bautista, L.E., 2016. Drug Side Effect Symptoms and Adherence to Antihypertensive Medication. American journal of hypertension, 29(6), pp.772–779. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpv185

Wang, H.H. et al., 2017. Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis: Recent Advances in Reverse Cholesterol Transport. Annals of Hepatology, 16, pp.S27–S42. doi: 10.5604/01.3001.0010.5495

World Health Organization, 2021, ‘Obesity and overweight’, in World Health Organization, viewed from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight.

You, C.L., Su, C.L. & Zhou, C.L., 2008. Study on Effect and mechanisms of Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid in regulating lipid metabolism. China J. Chin. Mater. Med., 33(9), pp.1064–1066.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jtbb.75914

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1489 | views : 822

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tropical Biodiversity and Biotechnology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Editoral address:

Faculty of Biology, UGM

Jl. Teknika Selatan, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia

ISSN: 2540-9581 (online)