Abdul Karim(1*), Nur Fitri Mardhotillah(2), Muhammad Iqbal Samadi(3)

(1) Muhamamdiyah University of Cirebon
(2) Muhammadiyah University of Cirebon
(3) UNIKL-Royal College of Medicine, Perak, Malaysia
(*) Corresponding Author


Although numerous styles have been utilized to study leadership focusing on task, role, work, managerial, spiritual and ethical, however there is no agreement on the ethnic style. The debate over this issue as related to the study of ethical leadership transforms into ethnic, especially natural roles of Indonesian’s leaders. In this paper two major approaches phenomenology and ethnography are examined to gaining the theory and the latter is presented the natural roles of ethnic leaders. This study proofs that (1) the concept of ethnic leadership is the ability to spread the belief, value, culture, and norm of ancestry. Also, (2) natural roles of ethnic leaders are transcendent, endogen and reflection of roles.


Manager’s Roles; Ethical Leadership; Ethnic Style

Full Text:



Alvesson, M. Leadership studies: From procedure and abstraction to reflexivity and situation. Leadership Quarterly. vol. 7, no. 4 (1996): 455-485. Ayman, R., & Korabik, K. “Leadership: Why gender and culture matter.” American Psychologist. vol. 65, no. 3 (2010): 157-170. Doi:10.1037/a0018806. Balgopal, Pallassana R. "Ethnic Minority Leadership: A Theoretical Perspective," The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare. vol. 11, iss. 2 (1984): 381-404. Available at: htp:// Bass, B. M., & Steidlmeier, P. “Ethics, character and authentic transformational leadership behavior.” Leadership Quarterly, 10 (1999): 181-218. Bresnen, M. J. All things to all people? Perceptions, attributions, and constructions of leadership. Leadership Quarterly. vol. 6, no. 4 (1995): 495-513. Brown, Michael E. & Mitchell, Marie S. Ethical and Unethical Leadership: Exploring New Avenues for future Research. Business Ethics Quarterly vol 20, no. 4 (October 2010): 583-616. Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row. Bush, T. & Coleman, M. Manajemen Mutu Kepemimpinan Pendidikan. Yogyakarta: IRCiSoD Diva Press, 2012. Chestang, L. W. "Environmental Influences on Social Functioning: The Black Experience," P. Chafferty and L. W. Chestang (Eds), Diversity in American Society: Implications for Social Policy, New York: Association Press, 1976. Chin, J. L., & Sanchez-Hucles, J. “Diversity and leadership.” American Psychologist. vol. 62, no. 6 (2007): 608-609. Doi:10.1037/0003-066X62.6.608. Ciulla, J, B. (Ed.). Ethics, the Heart of Leadership (2nd ed.). Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004. Cooper, T. L. The Responsible Administrator: An Approach to Ethics for the Administrative Role. 5th ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2006. Detert, J. R., Treviño, L. K., Burris, E. R., & Andiappan, M. “Managerial modes of influence and counterproductivity in organizations: A longitudinal business-unitlevel investigation.” Journal of Applied Psychology. vol. 92 (2007): 993-1005. Dukerich, J. M., Nichols, M. L., Elm, D. R., & Vollrath, D. A. “Moral reasoning in groups: Leaders make a difference.” Human Relations. vol. 43 (1990): 473-493. Ebegbulem, J. C. “Ethnic Politics and Conflicts in Nigeria: Theoretical Perspective.” Khazar Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. vol. 14, no. 3 (2011): 76-91. Fairholm, M.R. & Fairholm, G.W. Understanding leadership perspectives. Theoretical and practical approaches. New York: Springer, 2009. Fry, L. W. “Toward a theory of spiritual leadership.” The Leadership Quarterly. vol. 14 (2003): 693-727. Garrett-Akinsanya, BraVada. “Too Legit to Quit: Strategies of Successful African-American Female Leaders.” Brakins Consulting & Psychological Services, LLC Golden Valley, MN (n.y): xxiii. Gottlieb, J. Z., and J. Sanzgiri. “Towards an ethical dimension of decision making in organizations.” Journal of Business Ethics. vol. 15, no. 12 (1996): 1275-1285. Greenwald, A. G. “The totalitarian ego: Fabrication and revision of personal history.” American Psychologist. vol. 35 (1980): 603-18. Grojean, M., C. Resick, M. Dickson, & D. Smith. “Leaders, values, and organizational climate: Examining leadership strategies for establishing an organizational climate regarding ethics.” Journal of Business Ethics. vol. 55, no. 3 (2004): 223-241. Haidt, J., & Graham, J. When morality opposes justice: Conservatives have moral intuitions that liberals may not recognize. Social Justice Research. vol. 20 (2007): 98-116. Haney-Brown, Kim Renee. “The Relationship between Ethnic Identity and Leadership Style.” Doctoral Dissertation. Walden University (2017): 61. Hatch, M.J. Organization theory. Modern, symbolic and postmodern perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013. Heifetz, R. A. “Anchoring leadership in the work of adaptive progress.” In F. Hesselbein & M. Goldsmith (Eds). The leader of the future: Visions, strategies, and the new era (2006): 78-80. San Francisco, CA: Leader to Leader Institute, Josey Bass. Heifetz, R. A. Anchoring leadership in the work of adaptive progress. In F. Hesselbein & M. Goldsmith (Eds). The leader of the future: Visions, strategies, and the new era, (2006): 78-80. San Francisco, CA: Leader to Leader Institute, Josey Bass. Heres, Leonie & Lasthuizen, Karin. “Ethical Leadership: A Variform Universal Phenomenon.” Paper to be presented at the EGPA conference in Toulouse, France, 7-9 Sept. 2010. Study Group Ethics and Integrity of Governance (2010): 1. Heugens P.P.M.A.R. & Scherer, A.G. “When organization theory meets business ethics: towards a future of symbioses.” Business ethics quarterly. vol. 20 (2010): 643-672. Hofstede, G. “Cultural Constraints in Management Theories.” The Executive. vol. 7. no. 1 (Feb., 1993): 81-94. Jordan, DA. “A Phenomenological Study Of Transcendent Leaders In Healthcare.” UMI Number: 3161350 (2005): 274. King, M. “Practical reasoning and ethical decision.” Ethics. vol. 118, no. 4 (2008): 717-721. Lasthuizen, K.M. Leading to Integrity. Empirical Research into the Effects of Leadership on Ethics and Integrity. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: VU University, 2008. Lazarus, R. S. Psychological Stress and the Coping Process. New York: New York: McGraw-Hill. Lewis, C. S. The abolition of man. New York: HarperCollins, (1944). Lu, Jikuo. “Three Essays on Foreign Aid and Ethnic Leadership In Africa.” Doctor of Philosophy in Public and International Affairs. University of Pittsburgh (2018): 16. Malik, S. “Creative diversity”: UK public service broadcasting after multiculturalism. Popular Communication. vol. 11, no. 3 (2013): 227-241. Marcy, R. T., Gentry, W. A., & McKinnon, R. “Thinking straight: New Strategies are Needed for Ethical Leadership.” Leadership in Action. vol. 28, no. 3 (2008): 3-7. McDaniel, C. O., Jr. & Balgopal, P. R. "Patterns of Black Leadership: Implications for Social Work Education." Journal of Education for Social Work Education. vol. 14 (1978): 1. Michael E. Brown & Linda K. Treviño. “Ethical leadership: A Review and Future Directions.” The Leadership Quarterly. vol. 17 (2006): 595–616. Doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.10.004. Miles, M.B., and A.M. Huberman. Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks. London New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1994. Mischell, W. Personality and Assessment. New York: John Wiley, 1968. Monahan, Kelly. “A Review of the Literature Concerning Ethical Leadership in Organizations.” Emerging Leadership Journeys. vol. 5, iss. 1 (2012): 56-66. Monzani, L., Bark, A. S. H., van Dick, R., & Peiro, J. M. “The synergistic effect of prototypicality and authenticity in the relation between leaders’ biological gender and their organizational identification.” Journal of Business Ethics. vol. 132 (2015): 737-752. Myers, M. D. Qualitative Research in Business & Management. London, England: SAGE Publication Ltd, 2009. Nekoranec, W. Ethical leadership and OD practice. OD Practitioner. vol. 41, no. 2 (2009): 2-7. Nnoli, O. Ethnic politics in Nigeria. Enugu, Nigeria: Fourth Dimension Publishing Co. Ltd, 1978. O’Brien, D. and Oakley, K. Cultural Value and Inequality: a Critical Literature Review (2015). Available at: Okeke, Remi Chukwudi & Idike, Adeline Nnenna. “Ethnicity, Political Leadership and National Development in Nigeria: The Contradictions and the Local Government Nexus.” World Scientific News. vol. 56 (2016): 67-81. Oteh, C. O. and Eze, R. C. “Ethnic-religious conflicts and the travails of National integration in Nigeria’s fourth republic.” Canadian Social Science. vol. 8, no. 2 (2012): 79-85. Patel, Karen & Naudin, Annette. “Diversity and Cultural Leadership in the West Midlands: A report for the West Midlands Leadership Commission.” Birmingham Centre for Media and Cultural Research, Birmingham City University (2018): 3-51. Plinio, A. J. Ethics and leadership. International Journal of Disclosure & Governance, (2009): 277-283. Retrieved from h&AN=44824168&site=ehost-live. Riggio, R. E., Zhu, W., Reina, C., & Maroosis, J. A. “Virtue-based measurement of ethical leadership: The Leadership Virtues Questionnaire.” Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research. 62 (2010): 235–250. doi: 10.1037/ a0022286. Rodwell, S. “Internationalisation or Indigenisation of Educational Management Development? Some Issues of Cross-Cultural Transfer,” ProQuest Comparative Education. vol. 34 (Mar 1998): 41-54. Salawu, B. & Hassan, A. O. “Ethnic politics and its implications for the survival of democracy in Nigeria.” Journal of Public Administration and Policy Research. vol. 3, no. 2 (2011): 28-33. Sarros, J. C., & Santora, J. C. “The transformational-transactional leadership model in practice.” Leadership and Organizational Journal. vol. 22, no. 8 (2001): 383-394. doi:10.1108/01437730110410107. Souba, W. W. “The being of leadership.” Philosophy, Ethics & Humanities in Medicine. vol. 6, no. 1 (2011): 5-15. Steinwand, M. C. “Foreign aid and political stability.” Conflict Management and Peace Science. vol. 3, no. 2-4 (2015): 395–424. Stouten, Jeroen, Dijke, Marius van & Cremer, David De. “Ethical Leadership An Overview and Future Perspectives.” Journal of Personnel Psychology. vol. 11, no. 1 (2012):1–6. DOI: 10.1027/1866-5888/a000059. Treviño, L. K., Brown, M., & Hartman, L. P. “A qualitative investigation of perceived executive ethical leadership: Perceptions from inside and outside the executive suite.” Human Relations. vol. 55 (2003): 5-37. Ukiwo, U. “The study of ethnicity in Nigeria.” Oxford Development Studies. vol. 33, no. 1 (2005): 7-23. Viet, Sophia. “Perspectives on Ethical Leadership: an Overview.” Paper submitted to the International Congress on Public and Political Leadership (2016): 1-21. Watts, L. L., Frame, M. C., Moffett, R. G., Van Hein, J. L., & Hein, M. The relationship between gender, perceived career barriers, and occupational aspirations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. vol. 45, no. 1 (2015): 10-22. doi:10.1111/jasp.12271. Worrell, F. C., Mendoza-Denton, R., Telesford, J., Simmons, C., & Martin. “Cross racial identity scale (CRIS) scores: Stability and relationships with psychological adjustment.” Journal of Personality Assessment. vol. 93, no 6 (2011): 637-648. doi:10.1080/00223891.2011.608762. Wright, J. “To invest or insure? How authoritarian time horizons impact foreign aid effectiveness.” Comparative Political Studies. vol. 41, no. 7 (2008): 971–1000.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 10179 | views : 6913


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Leadership in Organizations

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Leadership in Organizations


Editorial Team
Focus and Scope
Peer Review Process
Publication Ethics
Screening for Plagiarism      


Author Guidelines
Submission Guidelines               
Online Submissions
Copyright Notice
Privacy Statement   
Author Fees            





Reviewer Guidelines      



General Search
Author index
Title index                       



Journal of Leadership in Organizations (JLO), with registered number ISSN 2656-8829 (Print) and ISSN 2656-8810 (Online), is published by the Center for Leadership Studies, Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada. The content of this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

© 2019 Journal of Leadership in Organizations