Popular Formulas in Sara Shepard's Pretty Little Liars


Pratiwi Wiranti(1*), Rahmawan Jatmiko(2)

(1) English Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) English Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author


This study investigates the popular formulas found in Sara Shepard’s novel entitled Pretty Little Liars and examines how the popular formulas contributes to the success of the novel. In order to meet these objectives, this paper adopts the theory of popular genre and John G. Cawelti’s approach to popular formulas. This research is a library research where the primary data were obtained from the novel. Furthermore, other books related to popular formulas and online information from credible sources were also consulted. The results of the study show that the popular formulas in Pretty Little Liars include gothic romance, questioning sexuality, sibling rivalry, self-esteem issues, and forbidden love.


Cawelti; popular formula; popular genre; Pretty Little Liars; Sara Shepard

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/lexicon.v5i2.41624

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