Dampak pembatasan sosial berskala besar terhadap kualitas udara di Jakarta

https://doi.org/10.22146/mgi.64767

Rezky Yunita(1*), Mangapul Parlindungan Tambunan(2), Rudy P. Tambunan(3)

(1) Prodi Pascasarjana Ilmu Geografi, Departemen Geografi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Indonesia, Gedung H, Kampus UI Depok, Jawa Barat
(2) Prodi Pascasarjana Ilmu Geografi, Departemen Geografi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Indonesia, Gedung H, Kampus UI Depok, Jawa Barat
(3) Prodi Pascasarjana Ilmu Geografi, Departemen Geografi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Indonesia, Gedung H, Kampus UI Depok, Jawa Barat
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Abstrak Beberapa negara di dunia memberlakukan pembatasan sosial dan karantina wilayah sebagai upaya untuk menekan laju penularan wabah virus COVID-19. Pembatasan sosial dan karantina wilayah memberikan dampak negatif bagi perekonomian, namun juga dapat berdampak positif bagi perbaikan kondisi lingkungan khususnya kualitas udara di suatu wilayah. Selama periode Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar (PSBB) di Jakarta tahun 2020, aktivitas penduduk di luar rumah menurun secara signifikan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis secara kuantitatif perubahan parameter kualitas udara berupa PM2.5 dan visibility di Jakarta selama periode sebelum (2019) dan setelah pandemi (2020) menggunakan metode statistik. Pengaruh mobilitas penduduk dan distribusi spasial konsentrasi polutan juga dianalisis dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan selama masa pandemi COVID-19, terdapat pengurangan konsentrasi polutan pada tahun 2020 hingga lebih dari 100 persen dibandingkan tahun 2019. Jarak pandang mendatar di Jakarta juga meningkat hingga 11 persen selama PSBB. Mobilitas penduduk mempengaruhi konsentrasi polutan di Jakarta sebesar 30 persen dan distribusi spasial menunjukkan adanya fluktuasi konsentrasi PM2.5 sebelum dan setelah diberlakukannya PSBB.

 

Abstract Countries worldwide have implemented some sort of lockdowns to slow down COVID-19 infection and mitigate it. Lockdown due to COVID-19 has drastic effects on social and economic fronts. However, this lockdown also has some positive effects on the natural environment, especially on air quality. During the 2020 PSBB period in Jakarta, outdoor activity decreased significantly. This study quantitatively analyzes air quality parameters of PM2.5 and visibility changes in Jakarta during the period before (2019) and after the pandemic (2020) using statistical methods. The impact of mobility to polution also become a concern in this study. The results confirmed an improvement in air quality due to the implementation of social restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic. PSBB has an impact on reducing pollutant concentrations by more than 100 percent during PSBB compared to 2019. The horizontal visibility in Jakarta also increased by 11 percent during the PSBB. Mobility has affected PM2.5 concentration by 30 percent in Jakarta, and spatial distribution of PM2.5 shows evidence of fluctuation during and before PSBB enacted.

 


Keywords


COVID-19; PSBB; PM2.5; Kualitas Udara; Mobilitas Penduduk.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/mgi.64767

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