Skrining fitokimia dan aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak etanol daun sirsak (Annona muricata L.) pada Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668

https://doi.org/10.22146/majkedgiind.11325

Friska Ani Rahman(1*), Tetiana Haniastuti(2), Trianna Wahyu Utami(3)

(1) Gadjah Mada University
(2) Departemen Biologi Mulut, Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(3) Departemen Biomedika, Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extracts Annona muricata  L.  on Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668. Dental caries is one of dental diseases frequently occurred in Indonesia. Streptococcus mutans plays an important role in the pathogenesis of dental caries. Soursop plant (Annona muricata L) has been used by some communities in Indonesia to cure various kinds of disease. Different environment where the plants grow may lead to the differences in the type and amount of secondary metabolites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the ethanol extract of Annona muricata L. leaves on the growth of S. mutans ATCC 35668 and phytochemicals analysis of Annona muricata L. leaves ethanol extract. The type of the research is an experimental laboratory, Soursop leaves were extracted by maceration using ethanol 70%. The extract obtained was then carried out phytochemical screening with thin layer chromatography (TLC). Concentrations of extract tested were: 150; 125; 100; 75; 50 mg/ml. Chlorhexidine 5% was used as a positive control while DMSO 5% was used a negative control. Based on phytochemical screening, Annona muricata L. leaves ethanol extract contained secondary metabolite compounds, such as saponin, terpenoid, steroids, avonoids, tannins and alkaloids. MIC obtained at concentration of 125 mg /ml. Data were analyzed by using one-way Anava parametric test. The effect of extract concentration on the growth of colonies of S.mutans ATCC 35668 showed a signicant result (p <0.05) among groups tested. Annona muricata L. leaves ethanol extract had antibacterial activity against S. mutans ATCC 3566 at MIC concentration of 125 mg/ml. and contained secondary metabolite compounds, such as saponins, terpenoids, steroids, avonoids, tannins and alkaloids.


ABSTRAK

Karies gigi merupakan salah satu penyakit gigi yang banyak terjadi di Indonesia. Salah satu bakteri yang berperan penting dalam terjadinya karies gigi adalah Streptococcus mutans. Tanaman sirsak (Annona muricata L.) telah digunakan secara turun temurun oleh sebagian masyarakat Indonesia untuk mengobati penyakit. Perbedaan kondisi lingkungan tempat tumbuh suatu tanaman dapat menyebabkan perbedaan jenis dan jumlah dari metabolit sekunder yang terkandung dalam tanaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak etanol daun sirsak terhadap S.mutans ATCC 35668 serta menentukan kandungan senyawa metabolit sekunder. Jenis penelitian merupakan ekperimental laboratoris, dilakukan ekstraksi pada daun sirsak dengan metode maserasi menggunakan pelarut etanol 70%. Ekstrak etanol daun sirsak selanjutnya dilakukan skrining tokimia dengan uji kromatogra lapis tipis (KLT). Uji aktivitas antibakteri dilakukan dengan metode dilusi cair. Penelitian ini menggunakan 5 konsentrasi yaitu 150; 125; 100; 75; 50 mg/ml. DMSO 5% digunakan sebagai kontrol negatif dan Chlorheksidine 5% digunakan sebagai kontrol positif. Berdasarkan uji KLT, ekstrak etanol daun sirsak mengandung senyawa metabolit sekunder berupa saponin, terpenoid, steroid, avonoid, tanin, alkaloid. Ekstrak etanol daun sirsak dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri S.mutans ATCC 35668 dengan KHM 125 mg/ml. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan uji parametrik Anava satu jalur. Konsentrasi ekstrak terhadap pertumbuhan koloni S.mutans ATCC 35668 menunjukkan hasil signikan (p<0,05). Ekstrak etanol daun sirsak memiliki aktivitas antibakteri terhadap S.mutans ATCC 35668 dengan KHM pada konsentrasi 125 mg/ml. Ekstrak etanol daun sirsak mengandung senyawa metabolit sekunder berupa saponin, terpenoid, steroid, avonoid, tanin dan alkaloid.



Keywords


antibacterial; Annona muricata L. leaves ethanol extract; phytochemicals; Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/majkedgiind.11325

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