The effect of adding zirconium dioxide nanoparticle to acrylic denture base on porosity and candida albicans adhesion

Angeline Antony(1), Haryo Mustiko Dipoyono(2), Titik Ismiyati(3*)

(1) Departement of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(2) Departement of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(3) Departement of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author


Acrylic resin is the most common fabricated material for denture bases. ZrO2 nanoparticles can be used as filler to strengthen the physical properties and inhibit the adhesion of acrylic resins. This study aimed to examine the growth of Candida albicans and porosity in reinforced acrylic resin with Zirconium Dioxide (ZrO2) nanoparticles at 2.5% and 5% a concentration targeted for denture bases application. A laboratory experiment study included twenty-seven disc-shaped samples which were divided into three groups: group I acrylic resin without ZrO2 nanoparticles (control), group II acrylic resin with 2.5% ZrO2 nanoparticles, and group III with 5% ZrO2 nanoparticle acrylic resin. Samples were collected by heat polymerization while porosity observations were done using primo zeizs starr (Nikon YS100) microscope at 100x magnification. Dilution test was implemented to assess Candida albican growth. One-way ANOVA and Post Hoc LSD test statistical analysis were performed to evaluate the data (p<0.05). The results indicated that the mean porosity values in the control group of 2.5% and 5% were 37.4 ± 3.5, 15.8 ± 3.3, 8.0 ± 2.0 respectively while the attachment of C. albicans was 0.832 ± 0.083, 0.536 ± 0.098, 0.218 ± 0.083. One-way ANOVA confirmed a significant effect (p<0.05). Similarly, Post Hoc LSD test reported significant difference (p<0.05). The results showed that acrylic resin reinforced with ZrO2 nanoparticles for heat-polymerized denture base effectively reduced porosity and C. albicans adhesion. Five percent of ZrO2 nanoparticle concentration presented greater porosity reduction compared to 2.5% ZrO2 and non-reinforced acrylic resin. Acrylic resin reinforced with ZrO2 nanoparticles in 2.5% and 5% concentration is fungistatic.


acrylic resin; candida albicans; denture base; porosity; ZrO22 nanoparticles

Full Text:



1. Khalifa N, Allen PF, Abu-Bakr NH, Abdel-Rahman ME. Factor associated with tooth loss
and prosthodontics status among sudanese adults. J Oral Sci. 2012; 54(4): 303-312.
doi: 10.2334/josnusd.54.303

2. Robinson DS, Bird DL. Essentials of Dental Assisting, 5th Edition. Missouri: Elseiver;
2013. 366

3. Jehuda L, Krista VS, Damayanti HCP. Pola kehilangan gigi pada pasien gigi tiruan
sebagian lepasan di rumah sakit gigi dan mulut program studi pendidikan dokter gigi
dan mulut fakultas universitas sam ratulangi. J kedok klinik. 2017; 1(3): 1-8.

4. Anusavice KJ, Shen C, Rawls HR. Ebook Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials, 12th ed.,
St. Louis – Missouri: Elsevier; 2013. 164-166, 721-742, 768.

5. Sakaguchi RL, Powers JM. Craigs Restorative Dental Material, 13th Ed. Philadelphia: Mosby
Elsevier Inc; 2012. 191-192, 327-348.

6. Dayanti ME, Eha D, Harry P. Efektivitas perendaman lempeng resin akrilik dalam
infusa daun kemangi (ocinum basilicum linn) terhadap candida albicans. J Prosth Unair.
2010; 1(1).

7. Kusumawardani CDN, Chondro RT, Adrian I, Sari RP. Pengaruh penambahan
hidroksiapatit terhadap porositas dan compressive strength basis resin akrilik heatcured.
Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi. 2020; 32(2): 91-98. doi: 10.24198/jkg.v32i2.26627

8. Aslanimehr M, Rezvani S, Mahmoudi A, Moosavi N. Comparison of candida albicans
adherence to conventional acrylic denture base material and injection molding acrylic
materials. J Dent (Shiraz). 2017; 18(1): 61-64.

9. Dahar E, Handayani S. Pengaruh penambahan zirkonium oksida pada bahan basis gigi tiruan
resin akrilik polimerisasi panas terhadap kekuatan impak dan transversal. Jurnal Ilmiah
PANMED. 2017; 12(2): 194–199. doi: 10.36911/pannmed.v12i2.24

10. Fathima JB, Pugazhendhi A, Venis R. Synthesis and characterization of ZrO2 nanoparticlesantimicrobial activity and their prospective role in dental care. Microbial Pathogenesis. 2017; 110. 245–251.

11. Ihab NS, Moudhaffar M. Evaluation the effect of modified nano-filler addition on some properties of heat cured acrylic denture base material. J Bagh College Dentistry. 2011; 23(3): 23–29.

12. Ahmed MA, Ebrahim MI. Effect of zirconium oxide nano-fillers addition on the flexural
strength, fracture toughness, and hardness of heat-polymerized acrylic resin. World Journal
of Nano Science and Engineering. 2014; 4(2): 50-57. doi: 10.4236/wjnse.2014.42008

13. Juwita A, Widaningsih, Prabowo PB. Perbedaan kekuatan impak pada bahan resin akrilik
self cured dengan penambahan Zirconium Dioxide (Zro2) nanopartikel (the difference
of impact strength in acrylic resin self-cured with the addition of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2)
Nanoparticles). Denta jurnal kedokteran gigi. 2018; 12(1): 51-59.

14. Salman TA, Khalaf HA. The Influence of adding of modified ZrO2-TiO2 nanoparticles on certain physical and mechanical properties of heat polymerized acrylic resin. J Bagh Coll
Dent. 2015; 27(3): 33-39.

15. Azuma A, Akiba N, Minakuchi S. Hydrophilic surface modification of acrylic denture base
material by silica coating and its influence on Candida albicans adherence. J Med Dent Sci.
2012; 59(1): 1-7.

16. Gad MM, Al-Thobity AM, Shahin SY, Alsaqer BT, Ali AA. Inhibitory effect of zirconium oxide
nanoparticles on candida albicans adhesion to repaired polymethyl methacrylate denture
base and interim removable prostheses: a new approach for denture stomatitis preventio.
Inter J Nanomedicine. 2017; 12: 5409-5419. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S142857

17. Zhang XY, Zhang XJ, Huang ZL, Zhu BS, Chen RR. Hybrid effects of zirconia nanoparticles with aluminium borate whiskers on mechanical properties of denture base resin PMMA. Dent Mater J. 2014; 33(1): 141-146. doi: 10.4012/dmj.2013-054

18. Ariestania V, Teguh PB, Yusuf D. The difference of surface roughness in acrylic resin self-cured with addition of zirconium dioxide particles as a denture repaired materials. Indonesian Journal of Prosthodontics. 2020; 1(2): 67-70.

19. Ismiyati T, Widowati S, Soesatyo MHNE, Rochmadi R. Campuran kitosan dengan resin
akrilik sebagai bahan gigi tiruan penghambat Candida albicans. Majalah Kedokteran Gigi
Indonesia. 2017; 3(3): 139-145. doi: 10.22146/majkedgiind.23721

20. Kimthong P, Wattanapornphan P, Waree K, Uthaisangsuk V, Phongphisutthinan C.
Investigation of homogeneity of chemical and mechanical properties in laser-welded
dissimilar steel-aluminum. Chiang Mai Journal of Science. 2021; 48(4): 1112 -1128.

21. Yoshijima Y, Murakami K, Kayama S, Liu D, Hirota K, Ichikawa T, Miyake Y. Effect
of substrate surface hydrophobicity on the adherence of yeast and hyphal Candida. Mycoses. 2010; 53(3): 221-226. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2009.01694.x

22. Jangra SL, Stalin K, Dilbaghi N, Kumar S, Tawale J, Singh SP, Pasricha R. Antimicrobial
Activity of Zirconia (ZrO2) nanoparticles and zirconium complexes. J Nanosci Nanotechnol.
2012; 12(9): 7105–7112. doi: 10.1166/jnn.2012.6574

23. Ernst EJ, Rogers PD. Antifungal agents: Methodes and Protocols. Humana Press:
New Jersey; 2005. 9.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 226 | views : 370


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Currently, Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia indexed by:







 View My Stats

time web analytics