Perubahan Posisi Mandibula pada Perawatan Kamuflase Maloklusi Kelas III Skeletal

https://doi.org/10.22146/majkedgiind.7675

Sri Hartati(1*), Heryumani JCP(2), Kuswahyuning Kuswahyuning(3)

(1) Program Studi Ortodonsia, Program Pendidikan Dokter Gigi Spesialis Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(2) Bagian Ortodonsia, Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(3) Bagian Ortodonsia, Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Maloklusi kelas III skeletal pada umumnya memiliki hubungan rahang yang prognatik, yaitu mandibula terletak lebih maju dari maksila. Perawatan kamuflase non pembedahan pada pasien dewasa dengan maloklusi kelas III memerlukan pencabutan dua gigi premolar mandibula atau empat gigi premolar untuk memberikan ruang retraksi  gigi incisivus mandibula. Prinsip perawatan teknik Begg adalah mekanisme gaya differensial dengan menggunakan gaya yang ringan dan kontinyu. Penggunaan   elastik intermaksiler kelas III menyebabkan ekstrusi gigi molar atas, retrusi gigi insisivus bawah, rotasi mandibula searah jarum jam dan perubahan posisi kondilus. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perubahan linier dan anguler posisi mandibula pada perawatan kamuflase  maloklusi kelas III skeletal setelah dilakukan perawatan ortodontik dengan teknik Begg. Penelitian dilakukan pada 20 pasang sefalogram lateral dari subjek laki-laki dan perempuan usia 18-25 tahun yang memenuhi kriteria penelitian. Seluruh subjek yang dirawat dengan teknik Begg disertai pencabutan dua gigi premolar pertama bawah. Perubahan posisi mandibula ditentukan  dengan perubahan   titik Pg dan Pg. terhadap sumbu X dan sumbu Y sedangkan perubahan anguler dengan melihat perubahan sudut Y-axis. Data yang diperoleh dianalisisi dengan paired t test. Hasil penelitian perubahan posisi mandibula setelah perawatan ortodontik kamuflase  dengan alat cekat teknik Begg menunjukkan perubahan  yang bermakna (p<0,05).  Titik  Pg mengalami pergeseran ke arah posterior  dan inferior dan sudut Y-axis  mengalami peningkatan berarti terjadi rotasi searah jarum jam.

Skeletal Class III malocclusion generally has prognatic jaw relationship. The mandibular is more forward than the maxilla. Camouflage non-surgical treatment in adult patients with Class III malocclusion required extraction of two mandibular premolars or four premolar teeth to give a space of mandibular incisors teeth retraction. The Begg technique treatment principle is the mechanism of differential force using light and continuous force. The use of inter-maxillary elastic Class III causes the extrusion of upper molars, retrusion of lower incisors, clockwise rotation of the mandible and changing of condyle position. This research aims to determine the linear changing and angular position of the mandible on the camouflage treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion after orthodontic treatment with Begg technique. The research was conducted on 20 pairs of lateral cephalogram of men and women aged 18-25 years who met the research criteria. All subjects were treated with Begg technique with extraction of two lower first premolars. The changing of mandibular position is determined by changing the point Pg and Pg. to X axis and Y axis, while the angular changing is determined by looking at the changing of Y-axis. The obtained data were analysed with paired t test analysis. The results show that there are significant changes in mandibular position after camouflage orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance of Begg technique (p<0,05). Pg point is shifted towards the posterior and inferior, and Y-axis angle increases. It means that the clockwise rotation has happened.


Keywords


posisi mandibula; kamuflase; skeletal; klass III; teknik Begg;mandibular position; camouflage; class III skeletal; Begg technique

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/majkedgiind.7675

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