JATISABA (2015) AND ELEVEN MINUTES (2003) FROM A PSYCHOANALYTIC FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

https://doi.org/10.22146/poetika.v9i2.64788

Rizki Eka Putri Alda(1*)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This study analyzes Jatisaba, a novel by Ramayda Akmal and Eleven Minutes, a novel by Paulo Coelho, within a comparative literature framework. It aims to compare the transformation of the main female characters and their struggle to survive in both novels. By means of a descriptive qualitative method, the research was conducted from a psychoanalytic feminist perspective. This perspective believes that women are not born inferior, but some factors in her life have been placing them in an inferior position to men. The study resulted in the following findings. First, the main characters of both novels, Mae and Maria, underwent a psychological transformation throughout their life journeys of surviving human trafficking, sexual harassment and prostitution and navigating their love lives Both of them were brought up by a mother with a strong character that could protect them from castration and gender inferiority as a woman. Second, Mae and Maria’s struggle to survive became the cause of their resistance against patriarchal values with the power of their femininity. Third, the difference between the endings of the two novels reflects the different social and cultural values in the respective stories that greatly influence the female characters’ lives.

 

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa novel Jatisaba karya Ramayda Akmal dari Indonesia dan Eleven Minutes karya Paulo Coelho dari Brazil menggunakan pendekatan sastra banding. Penelitian ini mengungkap transformasi karakter dari tokoh utama perempuan dalam kedua novel dan cara mereka bertahan hidup dalam dunia yang didominasi oleh budaya patriarki. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif kualitatif dan perspektif feminis psikoanalisis. Perspektif ini berpandangan bahwa perempuan tidak dilahirkan sebagai makhluk inferior, tetapi ada beberapa faktor dalam hidup mereka yang dapat menyebabkan mereka berada pada posisi inferior. Hasil penelitian mengungkap tiga hal berikut ini. Pertama, transformasi psikologis dari tokoh utama perempuan dalam kedua novel, Mae dan Maria, merupakan hasil dari perjalanan hidup mereka melalui pengalaman-pengalaman seperti perdagangan manusia, kekerasan seksual dan prostitusi serta kehidupan percintaan. Keduanya dibesarkan oleh sosok ibu yang tangguh yang melindungi mereka dari kastrasi dan inferioritas sebagai perempuan. Kedua, perjuangan untuk bertahan hidup yang ditunjukkan Maria dan Mae menggambarkan perlawanan terhadap nilai-nilai patriarki menggunakan femininitas mereka Ketiga, pengaruh faktor-faktor sosial dan budaya terhadap pembentukan karakter kedua tokoh utama tersebut tercermin dalam akhir cerita yang berbeda antara novel Jatisaba dan Eleven Minutes.


Keywords


Characterization; comparative literature; femininity; psychoanalytic feminism; resistance

Full Text:

PDF


References

Akmal, Ramayda. (2015). Jatisaba. (Woodrich, Trans). Yogyakarta: Gress Publisher.

Azumurana, Solomon. O. (2016). Freud’s “Penis Envy,” Lacan’s the “Desire to be the Other” Nigerian Feminist Aesthetics: Adimora–Ezeigbo’s Children of the Eagle and Kaine Agary’s Yellow-Yellow . Journal of the African Literature Association, 6(1), 151–163. https://doi.org/10.1080/21674736.2011.11690177

Balsam, Rosemary. (2013). Freud, females, childbirth, and dissidence: Margarete Hilferding, Karen Horney, and Otto Rank. Psychoanalytic Review, 100(5), 695–716. https://doi.org/10.1521/prev.2013.100.5.695

Beauvoir, Simone De. (2010). Second Sex. New Yor: Vintage.

Brooks, Ann. (2011). Postfeminism: Feminism, Cultural Theory and Cultural Form. Yogyakarta: Jalasutra.

Brown, Catherine. (2013). What is ‘Comparative’ Literature? Comparative Critical Studies, 10(1), 3366. https://doi.org/10.3366/ccs.2013.0077

Coelho, Paulo. (2003). Eleven Minutes. Great Britain: Harper Collins. Daud, Brian. Septiadi., &

Sopoyono, Eko. (2019). Penerapan Sanksi Pidana Terhadap Pelaku Perdagangan Manusia (Human Trafficking) di Indonesia. Jurnal Pembangunan Hukum Indonesia, 19(3), 14710. https://doi.org/10.14710/jphi.v1i3.352-365

Endraswara, Suwardi. (2014). Metodologi Penelitian Ssatra Bandingan . Jakarta Selatan: Bukupop. Jakarta Selatan: Bukupop.

Evans, Caroline. (2013). On Rereading Simone de Beavoir’s The Second Sex After Thirty-Five Years. Women’s Studies Quarterly: The Feminist Press, 41(1 & 2), 2013. https://doi.org/10.1353/wsq.2013.0061.

Harris, Brienna., & Gassen, Nora. S. (2012). How Similar Are Cohabitation and Marriage? Legal Approaches to Cohabitation across Western Europe. Population and Development Review, 38(3), 435–467. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2012.00511.x.

Jothi, P. Arul. (2019). Exploring the Soul of Maria in Paulo Coelho’s Eleven Minutes. Shanlax International Journal of Arts, Science and Humanities, 6(1), 82–85. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2551354

Lazzarino, Runa. (2013). From Policies To Live Experince and Back: The Struggle for Reintegrating Returness Of Human Trafficking in Goiás State (Central West Brazil). Revista Interdisciplinar Da Mobilidade Humana, 21(4), 163–187. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1980-85852013000200009.

Mirafuentes, J. K. A., Alegria, M. A. A., Chua, L. I., & Arcipe, N. L. (2015). Human Ethos of Paulo Coelho’s selected novels: A Critico-Thematic analysis. University of the Visayas - Journal of Research: Reading and Literature, 171–188. https://doi.org/10.5281/ZENODO.2380977. Mitchell, Elspeth. (2017). he Girl and Simone de Beavouir’s The Second Sex: Feminine Becomings. Australian Feminist Studies, 31(93), 259–275. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/08164649.2017.140764

Nugroho, Bayu. Aji. (2019). Perlawanan Perempuan terhadap Dominasi Patriarki dalam Novel Geni Jora Karya Abidah El khalieqy Kajian Feminisme Psikoanalisis Karen Horney. Jurnal Sastra Indonesia, 8(2), 148–156.

Oxford Dictionary. (2021). Retrieved March 5, 2021, from https://www.lexico.com/definition/prostitute

Paulo, Hayashi. J. (2015). Tattvabodha and the hierarchical necessity of Abraham Maslow. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/14766086.2015.1076735

Purnomosasi, Luisa Kristasih Dwi. (2013). Tematologi: Pembacaan Teoritis Terhadap Salah Satu Metode Penelitian Sastra Banding Claudio Guillen. Poetika, 1(2), 120–130. https://doi.org/10.22146/poetika.v1i2.10399

Reineke, Sandra. (2017). The Intellectual and Social Context of The Second Sex. In L. Hengehold & B. Nancy (Eds.), A companion to simone de Beauvouir (pp. 28–36). https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118795996.ch2.

Siegenthaler, Edith. (2017). Prostitution in Switzerland: Geneva, Lausane and Bern: The Paul Kinsie Reports For the League of Nation. Trafficking in Women (1924-1926), 2, 222–227. https://doi.org/10.18356/c5a11303-en

Snyder, Hannah. (2019). Literature review as a research methodology: An overview guidelines. Journal of Business Research, 104, 333–339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.07.039.

Sugiarti. (2016). Estetika Dalam Novel Jatisaba Karya Ramayda Akmal. Litera, 15(1), 100–110. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.21831/ltr.v15i1.9769

Tong, Rosemarie Putnam. (2014). Feminist Thought: A More Comprehensive Introduction. (Aquarini Prayatna Prabasmoro Trans). (Fifth Edit). Yogyakarta: Jalasutra.

Widyawati, A. (2020). Criminal Policy of Adultery in Indonesia. JILS (Journal of Indonesian Legal Studies), 5(1), 171–186. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15294/jils.v5i1.36786.

Yang, Qin. (2018). Mulan in China and America: From Premodern to Modern. Comparative Literature: East and West., 1–15. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/25723618.2018.1482681

Zamzuri, Ahmad. (2020). MEMBACA JATISABA: MENELISIK MEMORI, TRAUMA, DAN JALAN PULANG. Widyaparwa, 48(2), 269–282. https://doi.org/10.26499/wdprw.v48i2.629

Zepf, Siegried., & Seel, Dietmar. (2016). Penis envy and the female oedipus complex: A plea to reawaken an ineffectual debate. Psychoanalytic Review, 103(3), 397–421. https://doi.org/10.1521/prev.2016.103.3.397



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/poetika.v9i2.64788

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 907 | views : 826

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2021 Poetika: Jurnal Ilmu Sastra

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

ISSN 2503-4642 (online) | 2338-5383 (print)
Copyright © 2022 Poetika under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

free web stats View My Stats