Haunted Memory, Trauma, and Recovery in Louise Erdrich’s The Stone

https://doi.org/10.22146/poetika.v10i2.75899

Alfian Maulana(1*), Faruk Faruk(2)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


While the ghost is almost always connected with the source of terror, psychological disorder, traumatic memory, unfinished task, or dormant desire, could it also be a guide to collective memory and recovery, especially for Native American society? This study aimed to read the haunting phenomenon in Louise Erdrich’s The Stone as literary work that could give a deeper understanding of the relation among haunting, collective memory, trauma, and recovery. It answered two questions: 1) How the haunting narrated past collective memory and system of power to the living, and 2) How the relationship between the memory and the present living might establish recovery. To analyze the text, this study used the haunting theory by Avery Gordon. The main data was collected from Louise Erdrich’s The Stone. The result revealed that 1) the haunting in this work was related to the demand of Ojibwe memory in the reservation era, that was the demand to be remembered; 2) the traumatic event was not over and continues to occur in the present, and 3) this text developed new mode of practicing testimony through the act of remembrance of the past collective memory.

Keywords


Native American; Hauntology; Collective Memory; Insidious Trauma; Recovery

Full Text:

PDF


References

9/11 Memorial & Museum. (2022). 9/11 Memorial & Museum. Retrieved June 30, 2022, from https://www.911memorial.org/visit/memorial

Alexander, J. (2012). Trauma: A Social Theory. Massachusetts: Polity Press.

American Government. (2022). Disaster of Wounded Knee. Retrieved June 30, 2022, from Library of Congress website: https://www.loc.gov/classroom-materials/immigration/native-american/disaster-at-wounded-knee/

Assmann, J. (2007). Cultural Memory and Early Civilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Babaienia, L., Zarrinjooee, B., & Bordbari, Z. (2022). In-between History and Memory: Leslie Marmon Silko’s Fictional World. Critical Literary Studies, 4(2), 37–52. https://doi.org/10.34785/J014.2022.786

Bergland, R. L. (1997). Possession and Dispossession: Native American Ghost and the Haunted National Imagination (Dissertation). Columbia University, Columbia.

Caruth, C. (1995). Trauma: Exploration in Memory. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.

Cawelti, John. G. (1977). Adventure, Mystery, and Romance: Formula Stories as Art and Popular Culture. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Child, B. J. (2012). Holding Our World Together: Ojibwe Women and the Survival of Community. New York: Penguin.

Derrida, J. (1974). Of Grammatology (Corrected; G. C. Spivak, Trans.). London: The John Hopkins University Press.

Derrida, J. (1994). Specters of Marx: The State of the Debt, the Work of Mourning and the New International (English Translation; P. Kamuf, Trans.). United Kingdom: Routledge.

Erdrich, L. (2003). Books and Islands in Ojibwe Country Travelling: Traveling through the Land of My Ancestor. New York: Harper Perennial.

Erdrich, L. (2019). The Stone. New York: The New Yorker. Retrieved from https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/09/09/the-stone

Foucault, M. (1995). Discipline and Punish (English Translation; A. Sheridan, Trans.). New York: Vintage.

Freud, S. (1941). The Uncanny (English translation; D. McLintock, Trans.). London: Penguin Books.

Freud, S. (1995). The Interpretation of Dream (English Translation; J. Strachey, Trans.). New York: Basic Book.

Gordon, A. (2008). Ghostly Matters: Haunting and Sociological Imagination. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press.

Halbwach, M. (1992). On Collective Memory (English Translation; L. Coser, Trans.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Jalal, B. (2018). The Neuropharmacology of Sleep Paralysis Hallucinations: Serotonin 2A Activation and a Novel Therapeutic Drug. Psychopharmacology, 235(11), 3083–3091. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-018-5042-1

Jensen, M. (2020). Testimony. In The Routledge Companion to Literature and Trauma (4th ed.). New York: Routledge.

Kennedy, R. (2020). Trauma and Cultural Memory Studies. In C. Davis & H. Meretoja (Eds.), The Routledge Companion to Literature and Trauma. New York: Routledge.

LaCapra, D. (2014). Writing History, Writing Trauma. England: John Hopkins University Press.

Laub, D. (1995). Truth and Testimony: The Process and the Struggle. In C. Caruth (Ed.), Trauma: Exploration in Memory. London: The John Hopkins University Press.

Lebow, R. N. (2006). The Memory of Politics in Postwar Europe. In R. N. Lebow, W. Kansteiner, & C. Fogu (Eds.), The Politics of Memory in Postwar Europe. London: Duke University Press.

Linzen, M., Boer, J., Schutte, M., Begemann, M., Vries, J. de, Koops, S., … Sommer, I. (2022). Occurrence and Phenomenology of Hallucinations in The General Population: A Large Online Survey. Schizophrenia, 8(41), 2–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41537-022-00229-9

NNAVM Staff. (2020). National Native American Veterans Memorial. Retrieved June 30, 2022, from National Museum of the American Indian website: https://americanindian.si.edu/visit/washington/nnavm

Petersen, A. H. (2018). These Writers Are Launching A New Wave Of Native American Literature. Retrieved May 27, 2022, from BuzzFeed News website: https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/annehelenpetersen/dont-f-with-tommy-and-terese

Punter, D. (2013). The Literature of Terror: Volume 2: The Modern Gothic (Vol. 2). London: Routledge.

Rahimi, S. (2021). Hauntology of Everyday Life. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Root, M. (1992). Reconstructing the Impact of Trauma on Personality. In L. Brown & M. Ballou (Eds.), Personality and Psychopathology: Feminist Reappraisals. New York: Guilford.

Rothberg, M. (2009). Multidirectional Memory: Remembering Holocaust in the Age of Decolonization. California: Standford University Press.

Scruton, C. (2022). Ghost Land: Spirit, Space, and the Construction of Cosmology in Native American Ghost Stories (Dissertation). The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee.

Silverman, M. (2020). Screen Memory. In The Routledge Companion to Literature and Trauma. New York: Routledge.

Upstone, S. (2009). Spatial Politics in the Postcolonial Novel. United Kingdom: Ashgate.

USHMM. (2022). United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved June 30, 2022, from https://www.ushmm.org/




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/poetika.v10i2.75899

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 619 | views : 445

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2022 Poetika : Jurnal Ilmu Sastra

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

ISSN 2503-4642 (online) | 2338-5383 (print)
Copyright © 2022 Poetika under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

free web stats View My Stats