Towards a Morphology of Critique: An Attempt to Classify Approaches to Literary Criticism

https://doi.org/10.22146/poetika.v11i1.79438

Martin Suryajaya(1*)

(1) Sekolah Pascasarjana Institut Kesenian Jakarta
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This study examines the possibility of classifying approaches to literary criticism so that each critical position can be mapped to other critical positions. This article is not an application of a literary criticism approach to reading a particular literary work but an attempt to map the relationships between approaches to literary criticism so that the issues raised here are theoretical and methodological rather than practical. This research offers another alternative: a comprehensive and valuable classification can be obtained by classifying the formal elements of reading practice rather than the theme. The method used here is a morphological study in the spirit of Vladimir Propp (2009) applied to the modality of reading to overcome the limitations of thematic classification offered by M.H. Abrams (1971), Northrop Frye (2007), Yoseph Yapi Taum (2017), and Vincent B. Leitch (Veeser, 2021). Through a formal study of reading modalities (coverage, access relation, and semantic modality), a classification of critical approaches is obtained, modelled in the axis of reading: the axis of depth, width, and distance by which the critics approach the literary phenomena. Based on that model, the entire approach to literary criticism can be classified into eight octants of the cube of reading: narrow–close–surface reading, narrow–close–deep reading, narrow–distant–deep reading, narrow–distant–surface reading, wide–close–surface reading, wide–close–deep reading, wide–distant–deep reading, and wide–distant–surface reading. Each approach is positioned relationally with other approaches in the cube of reading, so the space for dialogue and comparison is always wide open. By demonstrating the morphological relationships between critical approaches, this research opens new possibilities for interpreting each critical position as a liminal one so that each position is always related to and transformed into another.

Keywords


thematic classification, the morphology of criticism, modalities of reading, the axis of reading, cube of reading

Full Text:

PDF


References

Abrams, M. (1971). The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition. New York: Oxford University Press.

Adipurwawidjana, A. J. (2018). Kosmopolitanisme dalam Majalah Penghiboer di Awal Abad ke-20. Metahumaniora, 8(1), 136–150.

Bandel, K. (2013). Sastra Nasionalisme Pascakolonialitas. Yogyakarta: pustaha hariara.

Booij, G. (2005). The Grammar of Words: An Introduction to Linguistic Morphology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Budianta, M. (2008). Representasi Kaum Pinggiran dan Kapitalisme. In Sastra Indonesia Modern: Kritik Postkolonial, Edisi Revisi Clearing a Space (pp. 290–333). Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia & KITLV-Jakarta.

Budiman, M. (2008). Masalah Sudut Pandang dan Dilema Kritik Postkolonial. In Sastra Indonesia Modern: Kritik Postkolonial, Edisi Revisi Clearing a Space (pp. ix–xxiii). Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia & KITLV-Jakarta.

Dewanto, N. (2020). Kaki Kata. Padang & Jakarta: Teroka Press.

Dewi, N. (2022). Ecological Lamentation and Advocacy in Eka Budianta’s Selected Poems. Poetika: Jurnal Ilmu Sastra, 10(1), 11–19.

Eliot, T. (2008). The Perfect Critic. In Praising It New: The Best of the New Criticism. Athens, Ohio: Swallow Press & Ohio University Press.

Felski, R. (2015). The Limits of Critique. Chicago: The University Of Chicago Press.

Frye, N. (2007). Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Hae, Z. (2021). Sembilan Lima Empat: Sepilihan Esai Sastra dan Teater. Yogyakarta: Penerbit JBS.

Man, P. de. (1979). Allegories of Reading: Figural Language in Rousseau, Nietzsche, Rilke, and Proust. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Montrose, L. A. (1989). Professing the Renaissance: The Poetics and Politics of Culture. In The New Historicism (pp. 15–36). New York: Routledge.

Moretti, F. (2013). Distant Reading. London: Verso.

Nugraha, D., & Suyitno. (2022). Kritik dan Penelitian Sastra, Edisi Kedua. Surakarta: Muhammadiyah University Press.

Nurhidayah, S., & Setiawan, R. (2019). Lanskap Siber Sastra: Posmodernisme, Sastra Populer, dan Interaktivitas. Poetika: Jurnal Ilmu Sastra, 7(2), 136–147.

Porter, J. (2018). Popularity/Prestige: In Pamphlets of the Stanford Literary Lab (Vol. 17). California: Stanford Literary Lab.

Pradopo, R., D. (2002). Kritik Sastra Indonesia Modern. Yogyakarta: Gama Media.

Prasetyo, A. B. (2021). Saksi Kata. Yogyakarta: Diva Press.

Propp, V. (2009). Morphology of the Folktale (Laurence Scott, Trans.). Austin: University of Texas Press.

Ransom, J. C. (2008). Criticism, Inc. In Praising It New: The Best of the New Criticism (pp. 49–61). Athens, Ohio: Swallow Press & Ohio University Press.

Richards, R. J. (2008). The Tragic Sense of Life: Ernst Haeckel and the Struggle over Evolutionary Thought. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Rokhmansyah, A. (2014). Studi dan Pengkajian Sastra: Perkenalan Awal Terhadap Ilmu Sastra. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.

Selden, R. (2014). Practising Theory and Reading Literature: An Introduction. New York: Routledge.

Situmorang, S. (2018). Politik Sastra, Edisi Kedua. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Jual Buku Sastra.

Sungkowati, Y. (2010). Memetakan Komunitas Sastra Indonesia di Jawa Timur. Atavisme, 13(1), 100–116.

Suryajaya, M. (2022). Seni sebagai Pelarian ke dalam Kepribadian Lain: Sebuah Eksperimen Pembacaan Jauh atas Dua Marga. Jurnal Urban, 6(1), 5–24.

Taum, Y. Y. (2017). Kritik Sastra Diskursif: Sebuah Reposisi. Presented at the Seminar Nasional Kritik Sastra: Kritik Sastra yang Memotivasi dan Menginspirasi, Jakarta. Jakarta: Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa.

Veeser, H. A. (2021). The Rebirth of American Literary Theory and Criticism: Scholars Discuss Intellectual Origins and Turning Points. London: Anthem Press.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/poetika.v11i1.79438

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2237 | views : 1148

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2023 Poetika: Jurnal Ilmu Sastra

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

ISSN 2503-4642 (online) | 2338-5383 (print)
Copyright © 2022 Poetika under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

free web stats View My Stats