Kontestasi Nilai-Nilai Asia dan Hak Asasi Manusia di Indonesia Tahun 1991-1999

https://doi.org/10.22146/polgov.v1i2.60198

Mahesti Hasanah(1*)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Tulisan ini mendiskusikan tentang kontestasi nilai-nilai Asia dan penegakan norma HAM di Indonesia tahun 1991-1999 pada masa akhir pemerintahan Soeharto dan awal pasca Reformasi. Saat itu, para pemimpin ASEAN termasuk Indonesia, gencar menggaungkan nilai-nilai Asia. Nilai Asia pada masa Soeharto mengedepankan gotong-royong dan mendiskreditkan hak individu; serta membatasi kebebasan berpendapat dan berekspresi melalui program Pancasila (P4). Penelitian ini menunjukkan keterkaitan bagaimana rezim otoritarian menggunakan nilai-nilai Asia dan norma HAM untuk tujuan politik. Hak sipil dan politik menjadi dasar norma HAM yang didengungkan masyarakat sipil dan dunia internasional untuk menekan pemerintah Indonesia. Perkembangan HAM tidak bisa dipisahkan dari wacana demokrasi. Hal ini dikarenakan norma demokrasi merupakan bagian integral dari realisasi HAM. Dengan menggunakan kerangka teoretis pilihan rasional, artikel ini berargumen bahwa pemimpin Indonesia menggunakan nilai-nilai Asia dan norma HAM sebagai instrumen dan tujuan politik. Tujuan artikel ini untuk menginvestigasi karakter otoritas pemerintah Orde Baru menggunakan nilai-nilai Asia dan norma HAM sebagai instrumen politik. Dari sisi metodologi, penelitian ini melihat kembali kajian literatur yang berargumen jika norma bersifat konstruktivis dan mampu membentuk identitas dan memengaruhi perilaku aktor. Berbeda dengan studi yang ada, pendekatan rasional dalam tulisan ini memberikan alternatif lain untuk melihat pemaknaan norma dalam perkembangan HAM di Indonesia.

 


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/polgov.v1i2.60198

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